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Oman (/ˈmɑːn/ oh-MAHN; Arabic: عُمَان, [ʕʊˈmaːn]), officially the Sultanate of Oman (Arabic: سلْطنةُ عُمان Salṭanat(u) ʻUmān), is a country located in West Asia. It is situated on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and spans the mouth of the Persian Gulf. It shares land borders with Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, while sharing maritime borders with Iran and Pakistan. The capital city is Muscat. Oman has a population of 5,492,196 and is ranked the 120th most populous country. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the southeast, and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by United Arab Emirates on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz (which it shares with Iran) and the Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries.

Quick facts: Sultanate of Omanسلطنة عُمان (Arabic) Sa...
Sultanate of Oman
سلطنة عُمان (Arabic)
Salṭanat ʻUmān
Anthem: نشيد السلام السلطاني
"as-Salām as-Sultānī"
"Sultanic Salutation"
Location of Oman (dark green)
Location of Oman (dark green)
and largest city
23°35′20″N 58°24′30″E
Official languagesArabic[1]
GovernmentIslamic absolute monarchy
Haitham bin Tariq
Theyazin bin Haitham
LegislatureCouncil of Oman
Council of State (Majlis al-Dawla)
Consultative Assembly (Majlis al-Shura)
 Azd tribe migration
 Imamate established[3]
 Al Said dynasty
8 January 1856
 Sultanate of Oman
9 August 1970
6 January 2021[4]
309,500 km2 (119,500 sq mi) (70th)
 Water (%)
 2021 estimate
4,520,471[5][6] (125th)
 2010 census
15/km2 (38.8/sq mi) (177th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
Increase $165.947 billion[8] (78th)
 Per capita
Increase $35,286 (71st)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
Increase $110.127 billion[9] (66th)
 Per capita
Increase $23,416 (55th)
Gini (2018)30.75[10]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.816[11]
very high · 54th
CurrencyOmani rial (OMR)
Time zoneUTC+4 (GST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+968
ISO 3166 codeOM
Internet, عمان.

From the 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was an empire, vying with the Portuguese and British empires for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence and control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to Iran and Pakistan, and as far south as Zanzibar.[12] In the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom. For over 300 years, the relations built between the 2 empires were based on mutual benefit. The UK recognized Oman's geographical importance as a trading hub that secured their trading lanes in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean and protected their empire in the Indian sub-continent. Oman is an absolute monarchy led by a Sultan, with power passed down through the male line. Qaboos bin Said was the Sultan from 1970 until his death on 10 January 2020.[13] Qaboos, who died childless, had named his cousin, Haitham bin Tariq, as his successor in a letter, and the family confirmed him as the Sultan of Oman.[14]

Formerly a maritime empire, Oman is the oldest continuously independent state in the Arab world.[15][16] It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. It has oil reserves ranked 22nd globally.[15][17] In 2010, the United Nations Development Programme ranked Oman as the most improved nation in the world in terms of development during the preceding 40 years.[18] A portion of its economy involves tourism and trading fish, dates and other agricultural produce. Oman is categorized as a high-income economy and, as of 2022, ranks as the 64th most peaceful country in the world according to the Global Peace Index.[19]