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Pamphylian is a little-attested and isolated dialect of Ancient Greek that was spoken in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Its origins and relation to other Greek dialects are uncertain. A number of scholars have distinguished in Pamphylian dialect important isoglosses with Arcadocypriot which allow them to be studied together. Pamphylia means "land of all phyles (tribes)". The Achaeans may have settled the region under the leadership of Amphilochus, Calchas, and Mopsus. However, other cities in Pamphylia were established by different Greek tribes: Aspendos was a colony of Argos, Side was a colony of Aeolian Cyme, Sillyon was a colony of an unknown Greek mother city, and Perga was a colony established by a wave of Greeks from northern Anatolia. The isolation of the dialect took place even before the appearance of the Greek article. Pamphylian is the only dialect that does not use articles other than Mycenean Greek and poetic language.
Pamphylia had a variant local alphabet, that made use both of the original "Pamphylian digamma" (Ͷ) and a standard digamma (Ϝ), which was probably borrowed from other Greek alphabets. It has been surmised that the original sound /w/ in some environments (after vowels) was represented by Ͷ; where the sound has changed to labiodental /v/ in the Pamphylian dialect, it was represented by Ϝ. Sometimes Ͷ stood also in the place of beta.
There is also a psi-like sampi (
An inscription from Perge dated to around 400 BC reads: Ͷανά
Pamphylic Greek might be described as the most exotic of the Greek dialects. It appears to have been heavily influenced by nearby Anatolian languages such as Lycian, Pisidian, and Sidetic, in both phonology and syntax. In morphology and lexicon Anatolian influence apparently was much more limited.
The phonological influence of Anatolian on Pamphylic has been characterized as "massive structural interference", affecting both the consonant and vowel repertoire. Aspirates gave way to fricatives (θ /th/ → τ /t/, χ /kh/ → κ /k/)[clarification needed] as did stop consonants (/b/ → /w/, /d/ → /r/, /g/ → /y/), glides /w/ and /y/ made their appearance regularly, in the vowel system we see signs of syllabic liquids (/ro/ → /r̩/ → /or, er/), nasalization (/en/ → /ẽ/ → /e/), and change of the Greek /o/ sound into the more "Anatolian" /u/.
In syntax three specific peculiarities stand out: absence of the article "the", use of the dative with pre- and postpositions where other Greeks would use a genitive, and the use of a special expression και νι + imperative.
All of these features can be explained as an adaption of the Greek language by imperfect second-language speakers: if a small group of colonizing Greek immigrants remained a minority in an area inhabited by Anatolian speaking people, the heavily accented Greek spoken as a second language by the local population, coloured by their native Anatolian language, would become the norm in the area. Because Pamphylia was an isolated region ("a backwater, relatively inaccessible"), there were few external stimuli to later change this situation.
- ἀβελιακόν/abeliakon – solar (Attic: ἡλιακόν, heliakon)
- Ἀβώβας/Abôbas – Adonis (Attic: ὁ Ἄδωνις)
- ἄγεθλα/agethla – sacrificial victims (Attic: "the driven ones")
- ἀγός/agos – priest (Attic: hiereus, Cf. agô lead)
- ἀδρί/adri (Attic: ἀνδρί, andri, dative of aner meaning "to (for) the man")
- Ἀηδών/Aêdôn or Ἀβηδών/Abêdôn – Athena
- αἰβετός/aibetos – eagle (Attic: ἀετός, aetos)
- ἀμείνασις/ameinasis – mentha (Attic: ἡδύοσμον, hêdyosmon)
- Ἀπέλο̄ν/Apelon (Attic: Ἀπόλλων)
- ἄρκυμα/arkuma – locust (Attic: ἀκρίς, akris)
- ἀτρώποισι/atrôpoisi or ἀτρο̄́ποισι dative, plural (Attic: τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, tois anthropois, "to/for the people")
- βαβέλιος/babelios – sun (Cretan and Doric: ἀβέλιος, abelios; Laconian: βέλα, bela; Aeolic: ἀέλιος, aelios; Ionic: ἠέλιος, ēelios; Attic: helios)
- βόϝα/bowa – oxen, cattle? (Attic: bota boes)
- βο̄λε̄μενυς/bolemenus – willing (Attic: boulomenos) (ἐβο̄λᾱσετυ/ebolasetu – they wanted to (Attic: eboulêthêsan)
- βουρικυπάρισσος/bourikuparissos – vineyard (Attic: ampelos)
- Εστϝεδιιυς/Estwediius – Aspendios or Aspendian
- ϝέτιια/wetiia – years (Attic: etê; Homeric: etea; Locrian, Elean, and Arcadocypriot: Wetos; Latin: vetus)
- ϝίλσις/wilsis – distress (genitive of wilsiios).
- ἰκτίς/iktis – weasel, skunk, cat or member of Felidae (Attic: αἴλουρος, aílouros; Attic: iktis)
- ἴοδυ/iodu – imp. they should go (Attic: iontôn)
- κασσύας/kassuas – thunnus (Attic: ὄρκυνος, orkunos, orcynus)
- κατεϝέρξοδυ/katewerxodu (katarxontôn?)
- κόρκορας/korkoras – bird or rooster (Modern Greek: kókoras)
- κόρταφος/kortaphos – temple (anatomy) (Attic κρόταφος, krotaphos)
- λάφνη/laphnê – daphne (Attic: δάφνη)
- λάψα/lapsa – turnip (Attic: γογγυλίς, gongulis)
- νι/ni – in or one (Attic: en or hen)
- ὀρούβω/oroubô – rush forward (Homeric: orouô, ornumi)
- πέδε/pede – five (Attic: πέντε, pente; Modern Greek: pende, informal pede)
- περτέδο̄κε/pertedoke – he gave (Attic: prosedôke; Aeolic: pres for Attic pros)
- πηρία/pêria – field or farm
- σαράπιοι/sarapiοi – small fish, picarel, or maenidae (Attic: μαινίδες, mainides)
- σισίλαρος/sisilaros – partridge (Attic: πέρδιξ, perdix)
- τριμίσκον/trimiskon – clothing (Attic: himation, tribon; Koine: trimitos or trimiton meaning "garment of drill or ticking")
- ὕλογος/hulogos – army (Attic: stratos; Attic: σύλλογος, syllogos meaning "reunion" or "gathering")
- Ͷανάϡα Πρειία/Vanassa Preiia – lady-goddess (Homeric: ϝάνασσα see wanax; Κλεμύτας Λϝαραμυ Ͷασιρϝο̄τας dedicated it to her)
- ͷοῖκυ/voiku – house (Attic: oikos; Cretan and Locrian: ϝοικία, Woikia)
- φάβος/phabos – light (Homeric: phaos; Attic: phôs)
- φεννίον/phennion (Attic: μηδικὴ ὁδός, "Medean road")
- φίκατι/phikati – twenty (Attic: eikosi; Laconian: beikati; Aeolian, Doric: weikati).
Source: Brixhe, Dialecte grec de Pamphylie
- Ἀθιμῖϝυς Athimiwus and Ἀθιμεͷς
- Ἀπελάͷρυͷις Apelavruvis
- Ἀρτιμίνα Artimina Ἀρτιμίδωρυς Artimidôrus (Attic: Artemidôros)
- Ἁφαστυς Aphastus (Attic: Hephaistos)
- Ἀφορδίσιιυς Aphordisiius (Attic: Aphrodisios)
- Βαλυς Balus
- Βοβᾶς Bobas, Βοβᾶτυς
- Γουκαλις Goukalis
- Δέξιϝυς Dexiwus (Attic: Dexios)
- Διβῶτυς Dibôtus
- Διϝίδωρυς Diwidôrus (Attic: Diodôros) Διϝ- also in Cypriot names
- Διϝονούσιυς Diwonousius (Attic: Dionysios)
- Ἑλλόθεμις Ellothemis (Cf.Cypriot: Ἑλλόϝοικος, Ellowoikos from Homeric esthlos meaning "good", "brave")
- Εστλεγιιυς Estlegiius
- Εχϝαλια Echwalia
- Ζοϝαμυς Zowamus
- Ζώϝειτους Zôweitous
- Ϝανάξαδρυς Wanaxadrus – wanax + anêr
- Ϝαρνόπα Warnopa Ϝάρνιτους Warnitous
- Ϝεχιδάμυς Wechidamus (Attic: Echedamos)
- Ϝέχιτους Wechitous (Attic: Echetos)
- Ϝουκω Woukô
- Θανάδωρυς Thanadorus (Attic: Athenodôros)
- Κέδαιϝις Kedaiwis
- Κεσκεὺς Keskeus Κεσκῖϝους Keskiwous
- Κοπερίνα Koperina
- Κορϝαλίνα Korwalina – little girl (Arcadocypriot: korwa)
- Κόρραγυς Korragus Ἀσπέδιιυς Aspediius Aspendian
- Κουρασιὼ Kourasiô
- Κυδρομολις Kudromolis
- Λαυδίκα Laudika (Attic: Laodikê)
- Μιαλίνα Mialina or Meialina (Attic: Megalina, Μιακλις Miaklis; Attic: Megaklês)
- Μουριξους Mourixous
- Μουρμακω Mourmakô
- Νεϝοχάρις Newocharis (Attic: Neocharês and Νεϝόπολις Newopolis)
- Ὀρυμνιϝυς Orumniwus
- Πεδδᾶτος Peddatos
- Πελλαυρύις Pellauruis
- Περίϝεργυς Periwergus (Attic: periergos)
- Ποναμελδῶς Ponameldôs
- Πορσόπα Porsopa
- Πρεῖϝυς Preiwus
- Σϝαρδιας Swardias and Ισϝαρδιας (Lydian: śfardẽtis, inhabitant of the Lydian capital Sfard = Sardes)
- Ͷαναξίωνυς Vanaxiônus
- Φορδισία Phordisia (Attic: Aphrodisia)
- Χορείνα Choreina
- Nick Nicholas: Proposal to add Greek epigraphical letters to the UCS. Technical report, Unicode Consortium, 2005. Citing C. Brixhe, Le dialecte grec de Pamphylie. Documents et grammaire. Paris: Maisonneuve, 1976; and L.H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
- "PHI Greek Inscriptions – IK Perge 1".. Other editions read "Kleͷutas" and "Lwaraͷu".
- Skelton, Christina (2017). "Greek-Anatolian Language Contact and the Settlement of Pamphylia" (PDF). Classical Antiquity. 36 (1): 104–129. Retrieved 2021-04-17.
- Skelton (2017), p. 111.
- Skelton (2017), pp. 117-127.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.7
- Pamph. — Sillyon 400-350 BC Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.24.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.14, 3.8.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.2.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.19.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.12.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.
- Eustahius Od.1654; Richard Valpy and Charles Anthon. The Elements of Greek Grammar (12th Edition). New York: W.E. Dean, Printer and Publisher, 1831, p. 297.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.5.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 17.
- Pamph. — Perge ~400 BC Epigr.Anat. 11:97,1
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.14,17.
- Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 3.15, Cf. rhum-.
- Pamph. — Aspendos 250-200 BC Brixhe, Dial.gr.Pamph. 17
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