Pan Twardowski (Polish: Pan Twardowski, Polish pronunciation: [ˈpan tfarˈdɔfski]), also known as Master Twardowski (Polish: Mistrz Twardowski), is a sorcerer in Polish folklore and literature who made a deal with the Devil. Twardowski sold his soul in exchange for special powers – such as being able to summon for King Sigismund Augustus the spirit of his deceased wife – and eventually met a tragic fate.
The tale of Twardowski exists in various versions, and forms the basis for many works of fiction, including the humorous ballad "Pani Twardowska" by Adam Mickiewicz. The folklore is commonly assumed to have been heavily inspired by the similar German story of Faust, with which there are many parallels.
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