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Penmarch

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This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in French. (December 2009) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article. Machine translation like Deepl or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary (using German): Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[:de:Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|fr|Penmarc'h)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
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Penmarch

Penmarc'h
Lighthouses on the Pointe de Penmarc'h

Coat of arms
Location of Penmarch
Penmarch
Penmarch
Penmarch
Penmarch
Coordinates: 47°48′46″N 4°20′12″W / 47.8127°N 4.3366°W / 47.8127; -4.3366Coordinates: 47°48′46″N 4°20′12″W / 47.8127°N 4.3366°W / 47.8127; -4.3366
CountryFrance
RegionBrittany
DepartmentFinistère
ArrondissementQuimper
CantonPont-l'Abbé
IntercommunalityPays Bigouden Sud
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Raynald Tanter
Area
1
16.39 km2 (6.33 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01)[1]
5,462
 • Density330/km2 (860/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
29158 /29760
Elevation−1–23 m (−3.3–75.5 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Penmarc'h or Penmarch is a commune in the Finistère department of Brittany in north-western France. It lies 18 km south-west of Quimper by road.

Geography

Penmarch is the southwest most township of Pays Bigouden, at the southern end of the Bay of Audierne. It is the most populous township of the Guilvinec's canton, with a population of 5,889 inhabitants in 1999 (21,813 for the entire township).

The territory of the town is particularly flat and a very low altitude. There are many marshy lagoons, some of which have been drained and filled, especially in St. Guénolé to save space or habitat for the installation of local handicrafts.

The municipality consists of four villages:

  • Penmarch-Bourg, formerly known as the Tréoultré;
  • Saint Guénolé (main fishing port);
  • Kerity (fishing port side moving towards the hosting of the craft);
  • St. Pierre (port for very small units).

Many islands or reefs of very variable dimensions punctuate the coast of Penmarch; the most important are the Etocs south of Kerity, and the island St. Nonna west of Saint-Pierre.

The port of Saint-Guénolé has a pass opening due west, thought to be dangerous in rough weather. It is protected by two granite peninsulas: Krugen in the South, and Conq in the northwest. Krugen is connected to the mainland by a sandy isthmus. Conq is connected to shore by an artificial embankment itself protected by concrete blocks to better break the flood wave.

The rocky granite coast (called "savage coast" in St. Guénolé) is interspersed with several beaches:

  • North, the beach of Pors Carn-which extends to the tip of the torch (joint Plomeur);
  • West, the beach of Joy;
  • South, the beach Steir Kerity which begins and continues through Guilvinec.

History

On the extremity of the peninsula on which it is situated are fortified remains of a town which was of considerable importance from the 14th to the 16th centuries and included, besides Penmarc'h, Saint-Guénolé and Kerity. It owed its prosperity to its cod-banks, the disappearance of which, together with the discovery of the Newfoundland cod-banks and the pillage of the place by the bandit La Fontenelle in 1595, contributed to its decline.

The church of Saint Nouna, a Gothic building of the early 16th century at Penmarc'h, and the church of St. Guénolé, an unfinished tower, and the church of Kerity are of interest. The coast is very dangerous. On the Pointe de Penmarc'h stands the Phare d'Eckmühl, with a light visible for 100 km (60 mi). There are numerous megalithic monuments in the vicinity.

Climate

Penmarch has a climate bordering between mediterranean (Köppen Csb) and oceanic (Cfb). It is heavily moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream influence, resulting in cool summers and very mild winters for the latitude as seasonal differences are low.

Climate data for Penmarch (1981–2010 normals; extremes 1973–2017)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
14.6
(58.3)
23.7
(74.7)
25.8
(78.4)
28.3
(82.9)
33.0
(91.4)
31.1
(88.0)
32.7
(90.9)
30.5
(86.9)
22.6
(72.7)
20.0
(68.0)
16.0
(60.8)
33.0
(91.4)
Average high °C (°F) 10.1
(50.2)
9.9
(49.8)
11.4
(52.5)
13.3
(55.9)
16.6
(61.9)
18.4
(65.1)
19.7
(67.5)
20.1
(68.2)
18.8
(65.8)
16.0
(60.8)
13.1
(55.6)
10.9
(51.6)
14.8
(58.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.2
(46.8)
7.8
(46.0)
9.3
(48.7)
10.8
(51.4)
13.5
(56.3)
15.8
(60.4)
17.4
(63.3)
17.7
(63.9)
16.3
(61.3)
14.0
(57.2)
11.1
(52.0)
8.9
(48.0)
12.6
(54.7)
Average low °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
5.6
(42.1)
7.1
(44.8)
8.2
(46.8)
11.0
(51.8)
13.3
(55.9)
15.1
(59.2)
15.2
(59.4)
13.8
(56.8)
11.9
(53.4)
9.1
(48.4)
6.9
(44.4)
10.3
(50.5)
Record low °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.4
(32.7)
2.0
(35.6)
6.0
(42.8)
8.8
(47.8)
8.3
(46.9)
6.7
(44.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
−9.3
(15.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.9
(2.95)
59.6
(2.35)
53.9
(2.12)
47.8
(1.88)
46.8
(1.84)
29.0
(1.14)
31.2
(1.23)
29.6
(1.17)
43.5
(1.71)
72.3
(2.85)
67.0
(2.64)
77.5
(3.05)
633.1
(24.93)
Average precipitation days 13.7 10.3 11.1 10.0 9.2 5.7 5.8 6.1 7.4 11.8 12.4 12.7 116.1
Source #1: Météo Climat [2]
Source #2: Météo Climat [3]

Population

Inhabitants of Penmarc'h are called in French Penmarchais. The commune has a greater population than Guilvinec.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1793 1,134—    
1800 1,166+2.8%
1806 885−24.1%
1821 1,462+65.2%
1831 1,727+18.1%
1836 1,781+3.1%
1841 1,783+0.1%
1846 1,867+4.7%
1851 1,964+5.2%
1856 1,987+1.2%
1861 2,029+2.1%
1866 2,227+9.8%
1872 2,431+9.2%
1876 2,641+8.6%
1881 2,871+8.7%
1886 3,238+12.8%
1891 3,600+11.2%
1896 4,298+19.4%
1901 5,068+17.9%
1906 5,702+12.5%
1911 6,051+6.1%
1921 6,735+11.3%
1926 6,877+2.1%
1931 7,037+2.3%
1936 6,956−1.2%
1946 7,077+1.7%
1954 7,204+1.8%
1962 7,652+6.2%
1968 7,320−4.3%
1975 6,921−5.5%
1982 6,463−6.6%
1990 6,272−3.0%
1999 5,889−6.1%
2008 5,633−4.3%

Sights

Penmarch is also home to the 'Droguen' rock.

Literary references

Dorigen, the female protagonist in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Franklin's Tale, has a name similar to this, which may symbolise her obduracy.[citation needed].

See also

References

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2016". INSEE. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. ^ "French climate normals 1981-2010". Météo Climat. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  3. ^ "Weather extremes for Penmarch". Météo Climat. Retrieved 19 September 2018.

Further reading

  • Couliou, Jean-René (1997) La Pêche bretonne. 446 p. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes
  • Foyer de l'enseignement (1950) Grandeurs ... au pays de Penmarc'h: terre et mer. 58 p. Les Amitiés de Lorraine et d'Alsace
  • Le Gallo, Yves (ed.) (1991) Le Finistère de la Préhistoire à nos jours. Ed. Bordessoules
  • Quaghebeur, Joëlle (2001) La Cornouaille du IXe au XIIe siècle. Société archéologique du Finistère
  • Dubois, Xavier (2002) « La Crise sardinière et les Mutations de la conserverie », in: Humbert, M., ed. La Bretagne à l'heure de la mondialisation. Rennes: Presses Universitaire de Rennes; pp. 27–33
  • Duigou, Serge, et al. (2003) Histoire du Pays bigouden. Ed. Palantines
  • Dreyer, Francis & Fichou, Jean-Christophe (2005) L'histoire de tous les phares de France. 316 p. Ouest-France ISBN 2-7373-3704-6; pp. 179–182
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Penmarch
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