Phosphofructokinase-2 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, PFK-2) or fructose bisphosphatase-2 (FBPase-2), is an enzyme indirectly responsible for regulating the rates of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in cells. It catalyzes formation and degradation of a significant allosteric regulator, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2) from substrate fructose-6-phosphate. Fru-2,6-P2 contributes to the rate-determining step of glycolysis as it activates enzyme phosphofructokinase 1 in the glycolysis pathway, and inhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 in gluconeogenesis. Since Fru-2,6-P2 differentially regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, it can act as a key signal to switch between the opposing pathways. Because PFK-2 produces Fru-2,6-P2 in response to hormonal signaling, metabolism can be more sensitively and efficiently controlled to align with the organism's glycolytic needs. This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. The enzyme is important in the regulation of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and is found in greatest quantities in the liver, kidney and heart. In mammals, several genes often encode different isoforms, each of which differs in its tissue distribution and enzymatic activity. The family described here bears a resemblance to the ATP-driven phospho-fructokinases, however, they share little sequence similarity, although a few residues seem key to their interaction with fructose 6-phosphate.
Class of enzymes
PFK-2 is known as the "bifunctional enzyme" because of its notable structure: though both are located on one protein homodimer, its two domains act as independently functioning enzymes. One terminus serves as a kinase domain (for PFK-2) while the other terminus acts as a phosphatase domain (FBPase-2).
In mammals, genetic mechanisms encode different PFK-2 isoforms to accommodate tissue specific needs. While general function remains the same, isoforms feature slight differences in enzymatic properties and are controlled by different methods of regulation; these differences are discussed below.