Political status of Taiwan

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The political status of Taiwan or the Taiwan issue is a long-running dispute on the status of Taiwan, currently controlled by the Republic of China (ROC). Originally based in Mainland China, the ROC government retreated to Taiwan in 1949 after the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) won the Chinese Civil War and established the People's Republic of China (PRC) in Mainland China. Since then, the effective jurisdiction of the ROC has been limited to Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and smaller islands.

Quick facts: Taiwan issue, Traditional Chinese, Simpl...
Taiwan issue
Traditional Chinese臺灣問題
Simplified Chinese台湾问题
Literal meaningTaiwan question

Prior to 1942, the CCP maintained that Taiwan was a separate nation.[1][2] Since its establishment in 1949, the PRC has claimed Taiwan as a province and has refused to establish diplomatic relations with Taiwan. The PRC has additionally not ruled out the use of force in the pursuit of unification.[3] The ROC maintained its claim of being the sole legitimate representative of China and its territory until 1991, when it ceased to regard the CCP as a rebellious group and recognized its jurisdiction over Mainland China.[4] The PRC has officially proposed "one country, two systems" as a model for unification, though this has been rejected by the Taiwanese government.[5] Within Taiwan, major political contention has been between parties favoring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity, contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal in the 21st century.[6][7]

The PRC includes not formally recognizing the ROC as a prerequisite for establishing diplomatic relations. Internationally, the United Nations and all countries that have diplomatic relations with the PRC handle relations with Taiwan according to their own respective "One China" policies.[8]

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