Polyvinyl chloride

Common synthetic polymer / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Quick facts: Names, Identifiers, Properties, Hazards...
Polyvinyl chloride
Repeating unit of PVC polymer chain.
Space-filling model of a part of a PVC chain
IUPAC name
Other names
Abbreviations PVC
  • none
ECHA InfoCard 100.120.191 Edit this at Wikidata
MeSH Polyvinyl+Chloride
Appearance white, brittle solid
Odor odorless
Density 1.4 g/cm3
Solubility in ethanol insoluble
Solubility in tetrahydrofuran slightly soluble
−10.71×10−6 (SI, 22 °C)[3]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineFlammability 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g. canola oilInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
10 mg/m3 (inhalable), 3 mg/m3 (respirable) (TWA)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):[4]
PEL (Permissible)
15 mg/m3 (inhalable), 5 mg/m3 (respirable) (TWA)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Quick facts: Elongation at break, Notch test, Glass Transi...
Mechanical properties
Elongation at break 20–40%
Notch test 2–5 kJ/m2
Glass Transition Temperature 82 °C (180 °F)[5]
Melting point 100 °C (212 °F) to 260 °C (500 °F)[5]
Effective heat of combustion 17.95 MJ/kg
Specific heat (c) 0.9 kJ/(kg·K)
Water absorption (ASTM) 0.04–0.4
Dielectric Breakdown Voltage 40 MV/m

Polyvinyl chloride (alternatively: poly(vinyl chloride),[6][7] colloquial: polyvinyl, or simply vinyl;[8] abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic polymer of plastic (after polyethylene and polypropylene).[9] About 40 million tons of PVC are produced each year.

PVC comes in rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible forms. Rigid PVC is used in construction for pipe, doors and windows. It is also used in making plastic bottles, packaging, and bank or membership cards. Adding plasticizers makes PVC softer and more flexible. It is used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, flooring, signage, phonograph records, inflatable products, and in rubber substitutes.[1][10] With cotton or linen, it is used in the production of canvas.

Polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in all solvents but swells in the monomer and some chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents.

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