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The Temple of Warriors at Chichen Itza, Mexico

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LocationSouthern portion of North America

Mexico, (Spanish: México) officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital. Other major urban areas include Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.

Human presence in Pre-Columbian Mexico goes back to 8,000 BCE and it went to become one of the world's six cradles of civilization. In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha. Last were the Aztecs, who dominated the region in the century before European contact. In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain. Over the next three centuries, Spain and the Catholic Church played an important role expanding the territory, enforcing Christianity and spreading the Spanish language throughout. With the discovery of rich deposits of silver in Zacatecas and Guanajuato, New Spain soon became one of the most important mining centers worldwide. Wealth coming from Asia and the New World contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next centuries, and brought about a price revolution in Western Europe. The colonial order came to an end in the early nineteenth century with the War of Independence against Spain. (Full article...)

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Imaging from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission STS-99 reveals part of the diameter ring of the crater in the form of a shallow circular trough. Numerous cenotes (sinkholes) cluster around the trough marking the inner crater rim.

The Chicxulub crater (IPA: [tʃikʃuˈlub]) is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. Its center is offshore near the community of Chicxulub, after which it is named. It was formed slightly over 66 million years ago when a large asteroid, about ten kilometers (six miles) in diameter, struck Earth. The crater is estimated to be 180 kilometers (110 miles) in diameter and 20 kilometers (12 miles) in depth. It is the second largest confirmed impact structure on Earth, and the only one whose peak ring is intact and directly accessible for scientific research.

The crater was discovered by Antonio Camargo and Glen Penfield, geophysicists who had been looking for petroleum in the Yucatán Peninsula during the late 1970s. Penfield was initially unable to obtain evidence that the geological feature was a crater and gave up his search. Later, through contact with Alan R. Hildebrand in 1990, Penfield obtained samples that suggested it was an impact feature. Evidence for the crater's impact origin includes shocked quartz, a gravity anomaly, and tektites in surrounding areas. (Full article...)

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The 1985 Mexico City earthquake struck in the early morning of 19 September at 07:17:50 (CST) with a moment magnitude of 8.0 and a maximal Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The event caused serious damage to the Greater Mexico City area and the deaths of at least 5,000 people. The sequence of events included a foreshock of magnitude 5.2 that occurred the prior May, the main shock on 19 September, and two large aftershocks. The first of these occurred on 20 September with a magnitude of 7.5 and the second occurred seven months later on 30 April 1986 with a magnitude of 7.0. They were located off the coast along the Middle America Trench, more than 350 kilometres (220 mi) away, but the city suffered major damage due to its large magnitude and the ancient lake bed that Mexico City sits on. The event caused between three and five billion USD in damage as 412 buildings collapsed and another 3,124 were seriously damaged in the city.

Then-president Miguel de la Madrid and the ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) were widely criticized for what was perceived as an inefficient response to the emergency, including an initial refusal of foreign aid. (Full article...)
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Unomásuno (English: One Plus One) is a Mexican daily tabloid newspaper circulated in Mexico City. Formed in 1977 by former employees of Mexico City's daily newspaper Excélsior, it became one of the leading leftist newspapers in Mexico during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The newspaper covered investigative topics that were often avoided by the rest of the Mexican press at the time, and it was a harsh critic of the Mexican government. By the mid-1980s, disagreements over the newspaper's management style led to internal divisions. Those who disagreed with Unomásuno and its future initiatives left in 1984 and formed La Jornada, another leftist daily in Mexico City.

In the late 1980s, Unomásuno was a victim of a backlash from the Mexican government for publishing articles highlighting a growing opposition faction within Mexico's dominant political party, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Its founder was threatened with prison for tax evasion, and the newspaper was forced to pay hefty fines. In 1989, its founder sold the newspaper to a PRI-affiliated businessman. Under the new ownership, Unomásuno became a propaganda organ for the PRI and published articles criticizing leftist opposition groups. Its circulation declined drastically over the years, and although Unomásuno was resold in 1998, it continued to experience financial difficulties. (Full article...)

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Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor (8 May 1753  – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or Miguel Hidalgo (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel iˈðalɣo]), was a Catholic priest, leader of the Mexican War of Independence and recognized as the Father of the Nation.

A professor at the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in Valladolid, Hidalgo was influenced by Enlightenment ideas, which contributed to his ouster in 1792. He served in a church in Colima and then in Dolores. After his arrival, he was shocked by the rich soil he had found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in New Spain (modern Mexico) growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by colonial authorities to prevent competition with imports from Spain. On 16 September 1810 he gave the Cry of Dolores, a speech calling upon the people to protect the interest of their King Ferdinand VII, held captive during the Peninsular War, by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy José de Iturrigaray. (Full article...)

In the news

13 November 2022 – Presidency of Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Thousands of demonstrators march nationwide against the proposal of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the president of Mexico, to reform the autonomous National Electoral Institute. The proposals include the possibility of allowing the president and congress to choose the electoral councillors to be subsequently voted by the electorate. (The Washington Post)
6 November 2022 –
An explosion at a fireworks show in Huejutla, Hidalgo, Mexico, injures 17 people. (AP)
26 October 2022 – Same-sex marriage in Mexico
The Congress of Tamaulipas approves of legislation legalizing same-sex marriage, making Tamaulipas the last Mexican state to do so. The legislation in Tamaulipas, as well as similar legislation in Edomex, Tabasco, and Guerrero, await their signing into law. (Reuters via Yahoo! News)
25 October 2022 – Same-sex marriage in Mexico
Same-sex marriage in Guerrero
The Congress of Guerrero votes to legalize same-sex marriage. (El sol de Mexico) (News 360 via MSN News)
21 October 2022 –
Mexico reports its first case of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in a wild, non-poultry bird in Metepec, State of Mexico. (Reuters)

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Enchiladas with mole, served with refried beans and Spanish rice
An enchilada (/ˌɛnɪˈlɑːdə/, Spanish: [entʃiˈlaða]) is a Mexican dish consisting of a corn tortilla rolled around a filling and covered with a savory sauce. Enchiladas can be filled with various ingredients, including meats, cheese, beans, potatoes, vegetables, or combinations. Enchilada sauces include chili-based sauces, such as salsa roja, various moles, tomatillo-based sauces, such as salsa verde, or cheese-based sauces, such as chile con queso. (Full article...)

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