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Ramond–Neveu–Schwarz (RNS) formalism (named after Pierre Ramond, John H. Schwarz, and André Neveu) was an early attempt to introduce fermions through the means of supersymmetry into string theory. In this theory, worldsheet embedded in spacetime is regarded as a bosonic field and the fermionic fields are regarded as the vectors of spacetime.
- Ramond, P. (1971-05-15). "Dual Theory for Free Fermions". Physical Review D. American Physical Society (APS). 3 (10): 2415–2418. doi:10.1103/physrevd.3.2415. ISSN 0556-2821.
- Neveu, A.; Schwarz, J.H. (1971). "Tachyon-free dual model with a positive-intercept trajectory". Physics Letters B. Elsevier BV. 34 (6): 517–518. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(71)90669-1. ISSN 0370-2693.
- Thomas Mohaupt (2002), "Introduction to String Theory"
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