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Rechargeable battery

Type of electrical battery / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell (formally a type of energy accumulator), is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use. It is composed of one or more electrochemical cells. The term "accumulator" is used as it accumulates and stores energy through a reversible electrochemical reaction. Rechargeable batteries are produced in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different combinations of electrode materials and electrolytes are used, including lead–acid, zinc–air, nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel–metal hydride (NiMH), lithium-ion (Li-ion), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), and lithium-ion polymer (Li-ion polymer).

A battery bank used for an uninterruptible power supply in a data center
A rechargeable lithium polymer mobile phone battery
A common consumer battery charger for rechargeable AA and AAA batteries

Rechargeable batteries typically initially cost more than disposable batteries but have a much lower total cost of ownership and environmental impact, as they can be recharged inexpensively many times before they need replacing. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the same sizes and voltages as disposable types, and can be used interchangeably with them. Billions of dollars in research are being invested around the world for improving batteries and industry also focuses on building better batteries.[1][2][3] Some characteristics of rechargeable battery are given below: [4]

  1. In rechargeable batteries, energy is induced by applying an external source to the chemical substances.
  2. The chemical reaction that occurs in them is reversible.
  3. Internal resistance is comparatively low.
  4. They have a high self-discharge rate comparatively.
  5. They have a bulky and complex design.
  6. They have high resell value.

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