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Ross and Cromarty (Scottish Gaelic: Ros agus Cromba), also referred to as Ross-shire and Cromartyshire, is a variously defined area in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. There is a registration county and a lieutenancy area in current use, the latter of which is 8,019 square kilometres (3,096 square miles) in extent. Historically there has also been a constituency of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (1832 to 1983), a local government county (1890 to 1975), a district of the Highland local government region (1975 to 1996) and a management area of the Highland Council (1996 to 2007). The local government county is now divided between two local government areas: the Highland area and Na h-Eileanan Siar (the Western Isles). Ross and Cromarty border Sutherland to the north and Inverness-shire to the south.
The county was formed by the uniting of the shires of Ross-shire and Cromartyshire. Both these shires had themselves been formed from the historic province of Ross, out of which the many enclaves and exclaves that formed Cromartyshire were carved out, leaving the remaining area to become Ross-shire. These parcels of land were for many purposes administered as part of Ross-shire rather than Cromartyshire. The county also included the Isle of Lewis, however this is not part of the modern lieutenancy area (which instead includes the Isle of Skye), although Lewis is part of the current registration county.