Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (/sʌˈdɑːm/ /hˈsn/;[4] Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي, romanized: Ṣaddām Ḥusayn ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrītī;[lower-alpha 2] 28 April 1937[lower-alpha 1] – 30 December 2006) was an Iraqi politician who served as the fifth president of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.[8] A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, and later, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization, the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and Arab socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup (later referred to as the 17 July Revolution) that brought the party to power in Iraq.

Quick facts: MarshalSaddam Hussein, 5th President of Iraq,...
Saddam Hussein
صدام حسين
Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
5th President of Iraq
In office
16 July 1979  9 April 2003
Prime Minister
Vice President
Preceded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded byJay Garner (as Director of the Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance of Iraq)
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council
In office
16 July 1979  9 April 2003
Preceded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded byOffice abolished
Prime Minister of Iraq
In office
29 May 1994  9 April 2003
Preceded byAhmad Husayn Khudayir as-Samarrai
Succeeded byMohammad Bahr al-Ulloum (as Acting President of the Governing Council of Iraq)
In office
16 July 1979  23 March 1991
Preceded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded bySa'dun Hammadi
Secretary General of the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
In office
January 1992  30 December 2006
Preceded byMichel Aflaq
Succeeded byIzzat Ibrahim al-Douri
Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Iraqi Regional Branch
In office
16 July 1979  30 December 2006
National SecretaryMichel Aflaq (until 1989)
Himself (from 1989)
Preceded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded byIzzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
In office
February 1964  October 1966
Preceded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Vice President of Iraq
In office
17 July 1968  16 July 1979
PresidentAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Preceded byAhmed Hassan al-Bakr
Succeeded byIzzat Ibrahim al-Douri
Member of the Regional Command of the Iraqi Regional Branch
In office
February 1964  9 April 2003
Personal details
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti

(1937-04-28)28 April 1937[lower-alpha 1]
Al-Awja, Saladin Governorate, Kingdom of Iraq
Died30 December 2006(2006-12-30) (aged 69)
Camp Justice, Kadhimiya, Baghdad, Iraq
Cause of deathExecution by hanging
Resting placeAl-Awja
Political party
    (m. 1963)
      (m. 1986)
      Military service
      Allegiance Iraq
      Branch/serviceIraqi Armed Forces
      Rank Marshal

      As vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he tightly controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalised the Iraq Petroleum Company and independent banks, eventually leaving the banking system insolvent due to inflation and bad loans.[9] Through the 1970s, Saddam consolidated his authority over the apparatus of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy grow rapidly. Positions of power in the country were mostly filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.[10]

      Saddam formally took power in 1979, although he had already been the de facto head of Iraq for several years. He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively,[11] and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. He ran a repressive authoritarian government,[12] which several analysts have described as totalitarian,[lower-alpha 3] although the applicability of that label has been contested.[13] Saddam's rule was marked by numerous human rights abuses, including an estimated 250,000 arbitrary killings[14] and bloody invasions of neighboring Iran and Kuwait.[15]

      In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam. US President George W. Bush and United Kingdom Prime Minister Tony Blair erroneously accused Iraq of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda. Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded. After his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam Hussein took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted by an Iraqi court of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'a and sentenced to death by hanging. He was executed on 30 December 2006.[16]