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Samuel Fosso

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Samuel Fosso (born July 17, 1962) is a Cameroonian photographer who has worked for most of his career in the Central African Republic. His work includes using self-portraits adopting a series of personas, often commenting on the history of Africa. He is recognized as one of Central-Africa's leading contemporary artists.[1]

He won the Prince Claus Award from the Netherlands in 2001.


Fosso was born in Kumba, Cameroon, to Nigerian parents. He grew up in Afikpo, his ancestral home, until he had to flee to Bangui in the Central African Republic in 1972 in the wake of the Nigerian Civil War.[2][3]

Here he began to work as an assistant photographer when he was twelve, and a year later as a portrait photographer with his own studio in Bangui, 'Studio Photo Nationale'.[4] Initially he made self-portraits to fill up the unused parts of his photographic films. These photographs were destined for his mother, who had stayed behind in Nigeria. The making of self-portraits became an objective on its own for him.[5][6]

For his self-portraits he used special cloth backgrounds, in front of which he dressed up in costumes that varied greatly: authentic European costumes, African folk costumes, navy uniforms, karate keikogis, boxer shorts, and so on.[3][5]

In 1994 Fosso became known abroad when he won the first edition of African Photography Encounters in Bamako, Mali, the most important photography festival in Africa.

Fosso's style is somewhat comparable with that of Diane Arbus, in that his self-portraits show a glimpse of our own humanity. Arbus's photography has been said to show that everyone has their own identity, that is to say what remains when we take away the rest. In contrast Fosso's varying costumes are said to show that identity is determined partly as well by things over which humans lack control. His work has therefore also been characterized as having a disclosure of how humans can in fact create their own identity.[5]

On February 5, 2014, amidst looting after sectarian violence, Fosso's home studio in Bangui, containing his complete archive, was ransacked. This was discovered by chance by photojournalist Jerome Delay, who, along with fellow photojournalist Marcus Bleasdale, and Peter Bouckaert (Emergency Director at Human Rights Watch), rescued the majority of its contents, estimated at 20,000 negatives and 150 to 200 prints, though Fosso's cameras were stolen. Fosso was in Paris at the time.[7][8][9]



  • Samuel Fosso. Seydou Keita. Malick Sidibe. Portraits of Pride. West African Portrait Photography. Raster Forlag, 2003. ISBN 978-9171006776.
  • Maria Francesca and Guido Schlinkert. Samuel Fosso. 5Continents, 2008. ISBN 978-8874391011.
  • Simon Njami and Samuel Fosso. Samuel Fosso – PHotoBolsillo International, Revue Noire, 2011. ISBN 978-8492841622.


In past works, Fosso explores the idea of self-presentation, experimenting with props, costumes, and poses in flamboyant 1970s fashion.[11]

In 2008, he unveiled one of his most celebrated works, “African Spirits”.[1] Fosso’s theatrical self portraits pay tribute to fourteen political, intellectual, and cultural figures from Pan-African historical movements and the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. The photographs are made of gelatin silver print mounted on dibond and sized 162.8 by 122 centimeters.[12]

Fosso's work is held in the following public collection:

They include portraits of Angela Davis, Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, Nelson Mandela,[15] Martin Luther King Jr. and other black iconic figures. In his series African Spirits, Samuel Fosso skillfully conveys empowerment and the art of storytelling through his self portraits of celebrated black figures.

Influenced by his Igbo heritage and Igbo performance traditions of masquerade and body art, Fosso utilizes the concept of the “living dead” in African Spirits, the idea that the spirit of those before us remain close to the living.[1]

In an article from African contemporary publisher Revue Noire, editor Simon Njami reflects upon African Spirits, “Fosso has disappeared entirely… The bodies that we see represented are no longer his but those of people he impersonates.”[16] For example, in his portrait of Angela Davis,[17] Fosso is costumed in Davis’ iconic afro hairstyle and fashion transforming himself into a 1970s political activist. This concept of theatrical mimicry gives empowerment to the people he embodies and the ideals they stood for.

In African Spirits, Fosso was inspired by photographs of Even Arnold and Malcolm X, mimicking their portraits in great detail and transforming into the icons of black history. In his photographs is the recurring theme of storytelling, the performative impersonation of another person or idea. Through storytelling, Fosso is empowering and reclaiming the identity of himself, his subject, and his audience.

Steve Nelson comments on the glamorous and nostalgic theme Fosso adopts after African Independence, the Civil Rights Movement and the rise of Black Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s. “African Spirits points to an exploration of Pan-Africanist identity grounded in the political ideals of the 1960s, which stressed a shared politics of struggle for black people worldwide.”[18] Fosso’s famous self portraits celebrate and challenge concepts of Pan-African identity.

Fosso unveiled African Spirits in 2008, during the election of the first black president, Barack Obama. This was an important landmark in U.S. History, further expanding Fosso’s message of black empowerment and the celebration of black history.


  1. ^ a b c Lowery, Rebecca (2008). "Samuel Fosso". Museum of Modern Art.
  2. ^ Jeune Afrique – Les 50 qui font le Camerou (April 28, 2009) biography (in French)
  3. ^ a b c Brigitte Ollier, "Samuel Fosso, le Narcisse noir" Libération, August 3, 2010. (in French)
  4. ^ Henley, John (June 19, 2011). "Photographer Samuel Fosso's best shot". The Guardian. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c Museum of Art Ulrich, biography
  6. ^ Taylor, Jessica (June 27, 2002). "Here's looking at me". The Guardian. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
  7. ^ Beaumont, Peter (February 6, 2014). "Rescued from war-torn Bangui: photographer Samuel Fosso's life work". The Guardian. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  8. ^ Delay, Jerome (February 6, 2014). "Looted, but Not Lost: An African Artist's Life Work". Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  9. ^ Peter, Bouckaert (February 5, 2014). "Dispatch: Discovering Beauty Amid the Carnage". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
  10. ^ Prince Claus Fund, Awards
  11. ^ "Samuel Fosso - Self Portrait". International Center of Photography.
  12. ^ "Samuel Fosso". Purdy Hicks Gallery. 2019.
  13. ^ "Samuel Fosso. Untitled from the series African Spirits. 2008". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved September 7, 2018.
  14. ^ "Samuel Fosso (1962)". Purdy Hicks Gallery.
  15. ^ "Samuel Fosso - Nelson Mandela". Artsy - Purdy Hicks Gallery.
  16. ^ Njami, Simon (2010). "Monography of the Central-African Photographer Samuel Fosso". Revue Noire.
  17. ^ "Samuel Fosso - Angela Davis". Artsy - Purdy Hicks Gallery.
  18. ^ Nelson, Steve (Spring 2019). "Nelson Mandela's Two Bodies". Transition (116): 130–142. doi:10.2979/transition.116.130. JSTOR 10.2979/transition.116.130.
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Samuel Fosso
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