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Saxe-Altenburg (German: Sachsen-Altenburg) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia.[1] It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 1323 square kilometers and a population of 207,000 (1905) of whom about one fifth resided in the capital, Altenburg. The territory of the duchy consisted of two non-contiguous territories separated by land belonging to the Principality of Reuss. Its economy was based on agriculture, forestry, and small industry. The state had a constitutional monarchical form of government with a parliament composed of thirty members chosen by male taxpayers over 25 years of age.

Quick facts: Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg (1602–1918) Herzogtum...
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg (1602–1918)
Herzogtum Sachsen-Altenburg
Free State of Saxe-Altenburg (1918–1920)
Freistaat Sachsen-Altenburg
Flag of Saxe-Altenburg
Coat of arms of Saxe-Altenburg
Coat of arms
Anthem: Heil unserm Herzog, heil
(Hail to our Duke, hail!)
Saxe-Altenburg within the German Empire  The Ernestine duchies after 1825, with Saxe-Altenburg in orange
Saxe-Altenburg within the German Empire
The Ernestine duchies after 1825, with Saxe-Altenburg in orange
StatusState of the Holy Roman Empire,
State of the German Confederation,
State of the North German Confederation,
State of the German Empire,
State of the Weimar Republic
GovernmentDuchy (1602–1918)
Republic (1918–1920)
Johann Philipp (first)
Ernst II (last)
 Saxe-Weimar partitioned
7 July 1602
 Ernestine duchies rearranged, duchy restored
12 November 1826
November 1918
 Merger of Thuringia
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blason_Duch%C3%A9_de_Saxe-Weimar.svg Saxe-Weimar
Thuringia Flag_of_Thuringia_%28state%29.svg
* See Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
† As Free State of Saxe-Altenburg
‡ In 1920, the ex-Imperial states of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and the two principalities of Reuß all merged to form the Free State of Thuringia.