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Saxe-Altenburg (German: Sachsen-Altenburg) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 1323 square kilometers and a population of 207,000 (1905) of whom about one fifth resided in the capital, Altenburg. The territory of the duchy consisted of two non-contiguous territories separated by land belonging to the Principality of Reuss. Its economy was based on agriculture, forestry, and small industry. The state had a constitutional monarchical form of government with a parliament composed of thirty members chosen by male taxpayers over 25 years of age.
Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg (1602–1918)
Free State of Saxe-Altenburg (1918–1920)
|Anthem: Heil unserm Herzog, heil|
(Hail to our Duke, hail!)
|Status||State of the Holy Roman Empire,|
State of the German Confederation,
State of the North German Confederation,
State of the German Empire,
State of the Weimar Republic
|Johann Philipp (first)|
|Ernst II (last)|
• Saxe-Weimar partitioned
|7 July 1602|
• Ernestine duchies rearranged, duchy restored
|12 November 1826|
• Merger of Thuringia‡
* See Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
† As Free State of Saxe-Altenburg
‡ In 1920, the ex-Imperial states of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and the two principalities of Reuß all merged to form the Free State of Thuringia.