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Schiaparelli (Martian crater)

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Schiaparelli
Elevation map of the Martian crater Schiaparelli, as seen by Mars Global Surveyor
PlanetMars
Coordinates2°42′S 16°42′E / 2.7°S 16.7°E / -2.7; 16.7Coordinates: 2°42′S 16°42′E / 2.7°S 16.7°E / -2.7; 16.7
Diameter458.52 km
EponymGiovanni Schiaparelli

Schiaparelli is an impact crater on Mars, located near the planet's equator at latitude 3° south and longitude 344° in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle. It measures approximately 459 kilometers in diameter and was named after Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, known for his observations of the Red Planet and his mistranslated term "canali". The name was adopted by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973.[1]

Description

A crater within Schiaparelli shows many layers that may have formed by the wind, volcanoes, or deposition under water.

Layers can be a few meters thick or tens of meters thick. Recent research on these layers suggests that ancient climate change on Mars, caused by regular variation in the planet's tilt, may have caused the patterns in layers. On Earth, similar changes (astronomical forcing) of climate results in ice-age cycles.

The regular appearance of rock layers suggests that regular changes in climate may be the root cause. Regular changes in climate may be due to variations of a planet's tilt (called obliquity). The tilt of the Earth's axis changes by only a little more than 2 degrees since our moon is relatively large. In contrast Mars's tilt varies by tens of degrees. When the tilt is low (current situation on Mars), the poles are the coldest places on the planet, while the equator is the warmest (as on Earth). This could cause gases in the atmosphere, like water and carbon dioxide, to migrate poleward, where they would freeze. When the obliquity is higher, the poles receive more sunlight, causing those materials to migrate away. When carbon dioxide moves from the Martian poles, the atmospheric pressure increases, possibly causing a difference in the ability of winds to transport and deposit sand. Also, with more water in the atmosphere sand grains may stick and cement together to form layers.[2]

Gallery

  • Layers in a crater in the Schiaparelli basin as seen by MGS.
    Layers in a crater in the Schiaparelli basin as seen by MGS.
  • Layers in Crater within Schiaparelli crater, as seen by HiRISE.  Image from Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle.
    Layers in Crater within Schiaparelli crater, as seen by HiRISE. Image from Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle.
  • Circular structures on floor of Schiaparelli crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program.
    Circular structures on floor of Schiaparelli crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program.
  • Close-up of circular structure from previous image.  Streaks are also visible.
    Close-up of circular structure from previous image. Streaks are also visible.
  • Impact crater located near the equator in north-western Schiaparelli Basin.
    Impact crater located near the equator in north-western Schiaparelli Basin.
  • The Martian (2015 film)Ares IV Mission  - Landing Site(SW corner of Schiaparelli crater).
    The Martian (2015 film)
    Ares IV Mission - Landing Site
    (SW corner of Schiaparelli crater).
  • Wide view of layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program  Part of the picture is degraded.  Parts of this image are enlarged in other images that follow.
    Wide view of layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program Part of the picture is degraded. Parts of this image are enlarged in other images that follow.
  • Layered mound in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Layered mound in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Layered mound in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Layered mound in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Close view of layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Dark sand is visible on some layers.
    Close view of layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Dark sand is visible on some layers.
  • Close, color view of layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Dark sand is visible on some layers.
    Close, color view of layers in Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program. Dark sand is visible on some layers.
  • Wide view of layers and rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Wide view of layers and rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Close view of layers and rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Close view of layers and rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Close view of rough terrain and small pits in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Close view of rough terrain and small pits in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • Close view of rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    Close view of rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
  • lose view of rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program
    lose view of rough terrain in Northwestern Schiaparelli Crater, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program

Location on Mars

The Martian crater Schiaparelli is in the center of this 1980 mosaic from the Viking orbiter.
The Martian crater Schiaparelli is in the center of this 1980 mosaic from the Viking orbiter.

In popular culture

In the 2011 novel The Martian by Andy Weir, and the 2015 feature film adapted from it, Schiaparelli is the landing site for Ares 4, the fourth manned mission to Mars. The protagonist, Mark Watney, an astronaut from Ares 3 who is stranded on Mars, must travel from Acidalia Planitia to Schiaparelli, a journey of 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi).[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature – Schiaparelli". usgs.gov. Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature – International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  2. ^ http://www.spaceref.com:80/news/viewpr.html.pid=27101 Archived 2012-09-12 at Archive.today
  3. ^ Weir, Andy (2014). The Martian. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8041-3902-1.
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Schiaparelli (Martian crater)
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