Selenographic coordinate system
Coordinate system used on the Moon / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The selenographic coordinate system is used to refer to locations on the surface of Earth's moon. Any position on the lunar surface can be referenced by specifying two numerical values, which are comparable to the latitude and longitude of Earth. The longitude gives the position east or west of the Moon's prime meridian, which is the line passing from the lunar north pole through the point on the lunar surface directly facing Earth to the lunar south pole. (See also Earth's prime meridian.) This can be thought of as the midpoint of the visible Moon as seen from the Earth. The latitude gives the position north or south of the lunar equator. Both of these coordinates are given in degrees.
Astronomers defined the fundamental location in the selenographic coordinate system by the small, bowl-shaped satellite crater 'Mösting A'. The coordinates of this crater are defined as:
Latitude: 3° 12' 43.2" South Longitude: 5° 12' 39.6" West
Later, the coordinate system has become more precisely defined due to the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment.
Anything past 90°E or 90°W would not be seen from Earth, except for libration, which makes 59% of the Moon visible.