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Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact

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The signing of the non-aggression pact in Helsinki on 21 January 1932. On the left is Finnish Foreign Minister Aarno Yrjö-Koskinen, and on the right is Soviet Ambassador Ivan Maisky.[1]
The signing of the non-aggression pact in Helsinki on 21 January 1932. On the left is Finnish Foreign Minister Aarno Yrjö-Koskinen, and on the right is Soviet Ambassador Ivan Maisky.[1]

The Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact was a non-aggression treaty signed in 1932 by representatives of Finland and the Soviet Union. The pact was unilaterally renounced by the Soviet Union in 1939 after having committed a deception operation in Mainila in which it shelled its own village and blamed Finland.[2]

The Soviet Union had started negotiations for non-aggression pact negotiations with its neighbouring countries in Europe during the Japanese invasion of Manchuria to secure its own borders. Although Finland was the last to sign the pact, on 21 January 1932, after Estonia, Latvia and Poland, it was the first to ratify it in July 1932. Both parties guaranteed to respect each other's borders and agreed to stay neutral in each other's conflicts. Disputes were promised to be solved peacefully and neutrally.

The pact was extended to 31 December 1945 in Moscow on 7 April 1934. The extension was signed by Finnish Foreign Minister Aarno Yrjö-Koskinen and Soviet Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov.

The pact was renounced by the Soviet Union on 28 November 1939, two days before its invasion of Finland began. The Soviets falsely claimed that Finland had shelled a Soviet village. According to Article 5 of the pact,[3] both parties were to call for a joint commission to examine the incident. Finland tried to call one, but the Soviet Union refused.

See also

References

  1. ^ Turtola, Martti (1999). "Kansainvälinen kehitys Euroopassa ja Suomessa 1930-luvulla". In Leskinen, Jari; Juutilainen, Antti (eds.). Talvisodan pikkujättiläinen (in Finnish) (1st ed.). Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. pp. 13–46. ISBN 951-0-23536-9.
  2. ^ Vihavainen, Timo (1987). "The Soviet decision for war against Finland, November 1939: A comment". Soviet Studies. 39 (2): 314–317. doi:10.1080/09668138708411692.
  3. ^ Treaty of Non-Aggression and Pacific Settlement of Disputes between the Soviet Union and Finland, concluded on January 21, 1932 (translation)


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Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact
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