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New York (state)

U.S. state / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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New York, often called New York state to distinguish it from its largest city, New York City, is a state in the Northeastern United States. With 20.2 million people enumerated at the 2020 United States census, its highest decennial count ever, it is the fourth-most populous state in the United States as of 2021, approximately 44% of the state's population lives in New York City, including 25% in the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens; and 15% of the state's population is on the remainder of Long Island, the most populous island in the United States.[5][8] With a total area of 54,556 square miles (141,300 km2),[2] New York is the 27th-largest U.S. state by area. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to its south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to its east; it shares a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island; and an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to its north and Ontario to its northwest.

Quick facts: New York, Country, Before statehood, Admitted...
New York
State of New York
Excelsior (in Latin)[1]
Ever upward
Anthem: "I Love New York"
Map of the United States with New York highlighted
Map of the United States with New York highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New York
Admitted to the UnionJuly 26, 1788 (11th)
Largest cityNew York City
Largest county or equivalentKings (Brooklyn)
Largest metro and urban areasNew York metropolitan area
  GovernorKathy Hochul (D)
  Lieutenant GovernorAntonio Delgado (D)
LegislatureState Legislature
  Upper houseState Senate
  Lower houseState Assembly
JudiciaryNew York Court of Appeals
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation (list)
  Total54,555[2] sq mi (141,297 km2)
  Land47,126 sq mi (122,057 km2)
  Water7,429 sq mi (19,240 km2)  13.6%
  Length330 mi (530 km)
  Width285 mi (455 km)
1,000 ft (300 m)
Highest elevation5,344 ft (1,629 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
  Density416.42/sq mi (159/km2)
  Median household income
  Income rank
DemonymNew Yorker
  Official languageNone
  Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
  Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NY
Traditional abbreviationN.Y.
Latitude40° 30′ N to 45° 1′ N
Longitude71° 51′ W to 79° 46′ W

New York City is the most populous city in the United States, and around two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, the world's most sprawling urban landmass.[9][10] New York City is home to the headquarters of the United Nations,[11] and has been described as the cultural,[12][13] financial,[14][15][16] and media capital of the world,[17][18] the world's most economically powerful city,[19][14][20] and has sometimes been described as the capital of the world. The next five most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Yonkers, Rochester, Syracuse, and the state capital of Albany.

New York has a varied geography. The southeastern part of the state, the area known as Downstate, includes Long Island, several smaller associated islands, and New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley. The much larger Upstate New York area spreads from the Great Lakes to Lake Champlain, while its Southern Tier region extends to the border of Pennsylvania. Upstate includes a diverse topography and range of regions including the Adirondack Mountains in the northeastern lobe of the state and the Catskill Mountains in the southeastern part of the state. New York also includes several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains. The east–west Mohawk River Valley is the primary river valley bisecting more mountainous regions, and connects to the north–south Hudson River valley in the Capital Region of New York. Western New York is part of the Great Lakes region and borders the Great Lakes of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, as well as Niagara Falls. Between the central and western parts of the state, New York is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination.

New York was one of the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States. The area of present-day New York had been inhabited by tribes of the Algonquians and the Iroquois confederacy Native Americans for several thousand years by the time the earliest Europeans arrived.[21] French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal, Canada for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company.[22] The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed.[23]

The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multiethnic colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664, with the Dutch recapturing their colony in 1673 before definitively ceding it to the English as a part of the Treaty of Westminster the following year.[24] During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. In the early 19th century, New York's development of its interior, beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the east coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy.[25]

Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls and Grand Central Terminal.[26] New York is also home to the Statue of Liberty, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[27] In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship,[28] social tolerance,[29] and environmental sustainability.[30][31]

New York state is home to two Ivy League universities, Columbia University in New York City and Cornell University in Ithaca, both of which routinely rank among the top universities in the world. The state has approximately 200 colleges and universities, including the expansive State University of New York, the largest university system in the nation.[32][33][34]