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City in Tyne and Wear, England / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Sunderland (/ˈsʌndərlənd/ ) is a port city[lower-alpha 1] in Tyne and Wear, England. It is the City of Sunderland's administrative centre and in the historic county of Durham. The city is 10 miles (16 km) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne and is on the River Wear's mouth to the North Sea. The river also flows through Durham roughly 12 miles (19 km) south-west of Sunderland City Centre. It is the only other city in the county and the second largest settlement in the North East after Newcastle upon Tyne.

Quick facts: Sunderland, Population, Demonym, OS grid...
Sunderland is located in Tyne and Wear
Location within Tyne and Wear
Population168,277 (2021 Census)[1]
OS grid referenceNZ395575
 London240 miles (390 km) SSE
Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Postcode districtSR1–SR6
Dialling code0191
FireTyne and Wear
AmbulanceNorth East
UK Parliament
List of places
Tyne and Wear
54.906°N 1.381°W / 54.906; -1.381

Locals from the city are sometimes known as Mackems.[2][3][4] The term originated as recently as the early 1980s; its use and acceptance by residents, particularly among the older generations, is not universal.[5] At one time, ships built on the Wear were called "Jamies", in contrast with those from the Tyne, which were known as "Geordies", although in the case of "Jamie" it is not known whether this was ever extended to people.[6]

There were three original settlements by the River's mouth which are part of the modern-day city: Monkwearmouth, settled in 674 on the river's north bank with King Ecgfrith of Northumbria land granting to Benedict Biscop to found a monastery which, together with Jarrow monastery, later formed the dual Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey; Sunderland, settled in 685; and Bishopwearmouth, founded in 930. The later two are on the Wear's southern bank. The second settlement on the wear's mouth grew as a fishing settlement and later as a port, being granted a town charter in 1179.[7] The city started to trade coal and salt with ships starting to be built on the river in the 14th century. By the 19th century, with a population increase due to shipbuilding, port and docks, the town absorbed the other two settlements. Following the decline of its traditional industries in the late 20th century, the area became an automotive building centre. In 1992, the borough of Sunderland was granted city status.

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