The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

1903 antisemitic fabricated text first published in Russia / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is a fabricated antisemitic text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination. The hoax was plagiarized from several earlier sources, some not antisemitic in nature.[1] It was first published in Russia in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. It played a key part in popularizing belief in an international Jewish conspiracy.

Quick facts: Author, Original title, Country, Languag...
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Cover of first book edition of The Great Within the Minuscule and Antichrist, in which the Protocols appeared as an appendix
AuthorUnknown; plagiarised from various authors
Original titleПрограма завоевания мира евреями
(Programa zavoevaniya mira evreyami;
English: The Jewish Programme to Conquer the World)
CountryRussian Empire
LanguageRussian[lower-alpha 1]
SubjectAntisemitic conspiracy theory
Publication date
August–September 1903
Published in English

Distillations of the work were assigned by some German teachers, as if factual, to be read by German schoolchildren after the Nazis came to power in 1933,[2] despite having been exposed as fraudulent by the British newspaper The Times in 1921 and the German Frankfurter Zeitung in 1924. It remains widely available in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and continues to be presented by antisemitic groups as a genuine document. It has been described as "probably the most influential work of antisemitism ever written".[3]