Toba catastrophe theory
Supereruption 75,000 years ago that may have caused a global volcanic winter / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Youngest Toba eruption was a supervolcano eruption that occurred around 74,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is one of the Earth's largest known explosive eruptions. The Toba catastrophe theory holds that this event caused a severe global volcanic winter of six to ten years and contributed to a 1,000-year-long cooling episode, leading to a genetic bottleneck in humans.
|Youngest Toba eruption|
|Volcano||Toba Caldera Complex|
|Date||c. 74,000 years BP|
|End time||9-14 days|
|Impact||Second-most recent super-eruption; impact disputed|
|Deaths||(Potentially) Almost all of humanity, leaving around 3,000 - 10,000 humans left on the planet|
Lake Toba is the resulting crater lake
A number of genetic studies revealed that 50,000 years ago human ancestor population greatly expanded from only a few thousand individuals. Science journalist Ann Gibbons posited that the low population size was caused by the Youngest Toba eruption. Geologist Michael R. Rampino of New York University and volcanologist Stephen Self of the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa supported her suggestion. In 1998, the bottleneck theory was further developed by anthropologist Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. However, physical evidence refutes the links with millennium-long cold event and genetic bottleneck, and some consider the theory disproven.