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Turin (/ /, ture-IN, TURE-in, Piedmontese: [tyˈriŋ] ⓘ; Italian: Torino [toˈriːno] ⓘ) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in Northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is mainly on the western bank of the Po River, below its Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga hill. The population of the city proper is 847,287 (31 January 2022), while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.
|Città di Torino|
Città sabauda (Savoyard City)
Capitale delle Alpi (Capital of the Alps)
Città Magica (Magic City)
Auxilium meum a Domino (Latin)
("My help comes from the Lord")
|Metropolitan city||Metropolitan City of Turin (TO)|
|• Mayor||Stefano Lo Russo (PD)|
|• Total||130.17 km2 (50.26 sq mi)|
|Elevation||239 m (784 ft)|
|• Density||6,500/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Dialing code||0039 011|
|Patron saint||John the Baptist|
|Saint day||24 June|
|Official name||Residences of the Royal House of Savoy|
|Includes||several locations in Turin|
|Inscription||1997 (21st Session)|
The city was historically a major European political centre. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the House of Savoy, and the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the political and intellectual centre of the Risorgimento that led to the unification of Italy, as well as the birthplace of notable individuals who contributed to it, such as Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. Although much of its political influence had been lost by World War II, having been a center of anti-fascist movements during the Ventennio fascista including the Italian resistance movement, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the industrial triangle along with Milan and Genoa. It is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, the city is the world's 78th richest by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma-level global city. Turin is also home to much of the Italian automotive industry, hosting the headquarters of Fiat, Lancia, and Alfa Romeo.
The city has a rich culture and history, and it is known for its numerous art galleries, restaurants, churches, palaces, opera houses, piazzas, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its Baroque, Rococo, neo-classical, and Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles, gardens, and elegant palazzi, such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. In addition, the city is home to museums, such as the Museo Egizio, and the Mole Antonelliana, the city's architectonical symbol, which in turn hosts the Museo Nazionale del Cinema. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. The city also hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, lycea, and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, and the Turin Polytechnic. Turin is also worldwide famous for icons like the gianduja, the Holy Shroud, the automobile brand Fiat, and the association football club Juventus, which competes with its rival Torino in the Derby della Mole, the city's derby. The city, among other events, was one of the host cities of the 1934 and 1990 FIFA World Cups, along with hosting the 2006 Winter Olympics; Turin hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2022 and is hosting the tennis ATP Finals from 2021 until 2025.