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Turkish people

Turkic ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and Northern Cyprus / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Turkish people or Turks (Turkish: Türkler) are the largest Turkic people who speak various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. In addition, centuries-old ethnic Turkish communities still live across other former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as: "Anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." While the legal use of the term "Turkish" as it pertains to a citizen of Turkey is different from the term's ethnic definition,[99][100] the majority of the Turkish population (an estimated 70 to 75 percent) are of Turkish ethnicity.[101][102] The vast majority of Turks are Muslims and follow the Sunni and Alevi faith.[83]

Quick facts: Türkler, Total population, Regions with signi...
Map of the Turkish people around the world
Total population
c. 80 million
Regions with significant populations
Flag_of_Turkey.svg Turkey  60,000,000 to 65,000,000[1][2]
Flag_of_the_Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus.svg Northern Cyprus  315,000a[3]
Modern Turkish diaspora: 
Flag_of_Germany.svg Germany3,000,000 to over 7,000,000[4][5][6][7]
Flag_of_the_United_States.svg United States1,000,000–3,000,000[8][9][10][11]
Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg Netherlands500,000 to over 2,000,000[12][13][14][15]
Flag_of_France.svg Franceover 1,000,000[16][17][18]
Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg United Kingdom500,000b[19][20]
Flag_of_Austria.svg Austria360,000–500,000[21][22]
Flag_of_Belgium_%28civil%29.svg Belgium250,000–500,000[23][24]
Flag_of_Australia_%28converted%29.svg Australia320,000c[25][26]
Flag_of_Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan250,000d[27]
Flag_of_Sweden.svg Sweden185,000e[28][29][30]
Flag_of_Russia.svg Russia109,883–150,000[31][32]
Flag_of_Azerbaijan.svg Azerbaijan130,000d[27]
Flag_of_Switzerland_%28Pantone%29.svg  Switzerland120,000[33]
Flag_of_Canada_%28Pantone%29.svg Canadaover 100,000[34]
Flag_of_Denmark.svg Denmark70,000–75,000[35][36]
Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan.svg Kyrgyzstan55,000d[27]
Flag_of_Italy.svg Italy50,000[37]
Flag_of_Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan25,000d[27]
Flag_of_Norway.svg Norway16,500[38]
Flag_of_Ukraine.svg Ukraine8,844–15,000[39][27]
Flag_of_Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan13,000[40]
Flag_of_Finland.svg Finland10,000[41]
Flag_of_Poland.svg Poland5,000[42]
Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg New Zealand3,600–4,600f[43][26]
Flag_of_Ireland.svg Ireland2,000–3,000[44]
Flag_of_Brazil.svg Brazil2,000-6,300[45][46]
Flag_of_Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein1,000[47]
Turkish minorities in the MENA: 
Flag_of_Iraq.svg Iraq3,000,000–5,000,000[48][49][50]
Flag_of_Syria.svg Syria1,000,000–1,700,000g[51][52]
Flag_of_Libya.svg Libya1,000,000–1,400,000h[53][54]
Flag_of_Egypt.svg Egypt100,000–1,500,000[55]
Flag_of_Lebanon.svg Lebanon280,000i[56][57]
Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia270,000–350,000[58][59]
Flag_of_Yemen.svg Yemen10,000-100,000[60]
Flag_of_Jordan.svg Jordan50,000[61]
Turkish minorities in the Balkans: 
Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria588,318–800,000[62][63][64]
Flag_of_North_Macedonia.svg North Macedonia77,959–200,000[65][66]
Flag_of_Greece.svg Greece49,000–130,000[67][68][69][70]
Flag_of_Romania.svg Romania28,226–80,000[71][72][73]
Flag_of_Kosovo.svg Kosovo18,738–60,000[74][75][76]
Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina1,108[77]
Flag_of_Serbia.svg Serbia850[78]
Flag_of_Albania.svg Albania714[79]
Flag_of_Croatia.svg Croatia367[80]
Flag_of_Montenegro.svg Montenegro104[81]
Majority Islam (practising and non-practising), mostly Sunni, followed by Alevi or non-denominational.
Minority Christianity and Judaism.
Many also irreligious.
Related ethnic groups
Azerbaijanis[82] abd Turkmens[82]

a Approximately 200,000 are Turkish Cypriots and the remainder are Turkish settlers.[83]
b Turkish Cypriots form 300,000[84] to 400,000[85] of the Turkish-British population. Mainland Turks are the next largest group, followed by Turkish Bulgarians and Turkish Romanians.[86] Turkish minorities have also settled from Iraq,[87] Greece,[88] etc.
c Turkish Australians include 200,000 mainland Turks,[25] 120,000 Turkish Cypriots,[26] and smaller Turkish groups from Bulgaria,[89] Greece,[90] North Macedonia,[90] Syria,[91] and Western Europe.[90]
d These figures only include Turkish Meskhetians. Official censuses are considered unreliable because many Turks have incorrectly been registered as "Azeri",[92][93] "Kazakh",[94] "Kyrgyz",[95] and "Uzbek".[95]
e The Turkish Swedish community includes 150,000 mainland Turks,[28] 30,000 Turkish Bulgarians,[29] 5,000 Turkish Macedonians,[30] and smaller groups from Iraq and Syria.
f Including 2,000–3,000 mainland Turks[43] and 1,600 Turkish Cypriots.[26]
g This includes the Turkish-speaking minority only (i.e. 30% of Syrian Turks).[96] Estimates including the Arabized Turks range between 3.5 to 6 million.[97]
h Includes the Kouloughlis who are descendants of the old Turkish ruling class.[98]
i Includes 80,000 Turkish Lebanese[56] and 200,000 recent refugees from Syria.[57]

The ethnic Turks can therefore be distinguished by a number of cultural and regional variants, but do not function as separate ethnic groups.[103][83] In particular, the culture of the Anatolian Turks in Asia Minor has underlain and influenced the Turkish nationalist ideology.[103] Other Turkish groups include the Rumelian Turks (also referred to as "Balkan Turks") historically located in the Balkans;[83][104] Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus, Meskhetian Turks originally based in Meskheti, Georgia;[105] and ethnic Turkish people across the Middle East,[83] where they are also called "Turkmen" or "Turkoman" in the Levant (e.g. Iraqi Turkmen, Syrian Turkmen, Lebanese Turkmen, etc.).[106] Consequently, the Turks form the largest minority group in Bulgaria,[63] the second largest minority group in Iraq,[48] Libya,[107] North Macedonia,[66] and Syria,[96] and the third largest minority group in Kosovo.[75] They also form substantial communities in the Western Thrace region of Greece, the Dobruja region of Romania, the Akkar region in Lebanon, as well as minority groups in other post-Ottoman Balkan and Middle Eastern countries. Mass immigration due to fleeing ethnic cleansing after the persecution of Muslims during Ottoman contraction has led to mass migrations from the 19th century onward; these Turkish communities have all contributed to the formation of a Turkish diaspora outside the former Ottoman lands. Approximately 2 million Turks were massacred between 1870 and 1923 and those who escaped it settled in Turkey as muhacirs.[108][109][110][111] The mass immigration of Turks also led to them forming the largest ethnic minority group in Austria,[112] Denmark,[113] Germany,[114] and the Netherlands.[114] There are also Turkish communities in other parts of Europe as well as in North America, Australia and the Post-Soviet states. Turks are the 13th largest ethnic group in the world.

Turks from Central Asia settled in Anatolia in the 11th century, through the conquests of the Seljuk Turks. This began the transformation of the region, which had been a largely Greek-speaking region after previously being Hellenized, into a Turkish Muslim one.[115][116][117] The Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the South Caucasus, the Middle East (excluding Iran, even though they controlled parts of it), and North Africa over the course of several centuries. The empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned. Following the Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish National Movement retaking much of the territory lost to the Allies, the Movement ended the Ottoman Empire on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923.