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Uttar Pradesh

State in Northern India / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Uttar Pradesh (/ˌʊtər prəˈdɛʃ/;[13] lit. 'North Province') is a state in northern India. With over 241 million inhabitants, it is the most populated state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world – more populous than all but three other countries outside of India.[14] – accounting for 16.5 percent of the total population of India. It was established in 1950 after India had become a republic. It is a successor to the United Provinces, established in 1935 by renaming the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, in turn, established in 1902 from the North-Western Provinces and the Oudh Province. Lucknow serves as the state capital, with Prayagraj being the judicial capital. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttaranchal (now Uttarakhand), was created from Uttar Pradesh's western Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganges and its tributary Yamuna, meet at the Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj (formerly Allahabad), a Hindu pilgrimage site. Other notable rivers are Gomti and Saryu. The forest cover in the state is 6.1 per cent of the state's geographical area. The cultivable area is 82 per cent of the total geographical area and the net area sown is 68.5 per cent of the cultivable area.[15]

Quick facts: Uttar Pradesh, Country, Region, , Before was...
Uttar Pradesh
Etymology: Northern Province
"The Heartland Of India"
Satyameva Jayate (Truth alone triumphs)
The map of India showing Uttar Pradesh
Location of Uttar Pradesh in India
Coordinates: 26.85°N 80.91°E / 26.85; 80.91
CountryFlag_of_India.svg India
RegionNorth India
Before wasUnited Provinces (1937–1950)
(as a state)
24 January 1950[1]
and largest city
Largest metroLucknow
Districts75 (18 divisions)[2][3]
  BodyGovernment of Uttar Pradesh
  GovernorAnandiben Patel[4][5]
  Chief ministerYogi Adityanath (BJP)
  Deputy chief ministerKeshav Prasad Maurya (BJP)
Brajesh Pathak (BJP)
State LegislatureBicameral
  CouncilUttar Pradesh Legislative Council (100 seats)
  AssemblyUttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly (403 seats)
National ParliamentParliament of India
  Rajya Sabha31 seats
  Lok Sabha80 seats
High CourtAllahabad High Court
  Total240,928 km2 (93,023 sq mi)
  Length240 km (150 mi)
  Width650 km (400 mi)
Elevation300 m (1,000 ft)
Highest elevation957 m (3,140 ft)
Lowest elevation
(Easter side)
60 m (200 ft)
  TotalIncrease 241,066,874
  Density1,001/km2 (2,590/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Uttar Pradeshi, UPite
  Additional officialUrdu
  Official scriptDevanagari script
  Total (2022-2023)Increase24.39 lakh crore (US$310 billion)
  Per capitaIncrease105,000 (US$1,300) (28th)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-UP
Vehicle registrationUP
HDI (2018)Decrease 0.600 Medium[10] (35th)
Literacy (2011)Increase 67.68%[11] (29th)
Sex ratio (2021)1017/1000 [12] (19th)
Symbols of Uttar Pradesh
Foundation dayUttar Pradesh Day
BirdSarus crane
State highway mark
State highway of Uttar Pradesh
UP SH1 - UP SH99
List of Indian state symbols

The state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest, Uttarakhand and an international border with Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south and also bordered by Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. It covers 240,928 km2 (93,023 sq mi), equal to 7.3% of the total area of India, and is the fourth-largest Indian state by area. Though long known for sugar production, the state's economy is now dominated by the services industry. The service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies. The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the third-largest state economy in India with 18.63 lakh crore (US$230 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GSDP of 68,810 (US$860).[9] President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days.[16] The state, at present, has three international airports – Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport (Lucknow), Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport (Varanasi) and Kushinagar International Airport (Kushinagar). Prayagraj Junction is the headquarters of the North Central Railway and Gorakhpur Railway Station serves as the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway. The High Court of the state is located in Prayagraj. The state contributes 80 seats and 31 seats to the lower house Lok Sabha and the upper house Rajya Sabha, respectively.

Inhabitants of the state are called Awadhi, Bagheli, Bhojpuriya, Braji, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state, along with Urdu. Uttar Pradesh was home to most of the mainstream political entities that existed in ancient and medieval India including the Maurya Empire, Harsha Empire, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire as well as many other empires. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were three major princely states in Uttar Pradesh – Ramgadi, Rampur and Benares. The state houses several holy Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres. Along with several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, including Agra, Aligarh, Ayodhya, Kushinagar, Mathura, Prayagraj, Varanasi and Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh is also home to three World Heritage sites.

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