cover image


Soviet / Russian nuclear reactor type / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dear Wikiwand AI, let's keep it short by simply answering these key questions:

Can you list the top facts and stats about VVER?

Summarize this article for a 10 years old


The water-water energetic reactor (WWER),[1] or VVER (from Russian: водо-водяной энергетический реактор; transliterates as vodo-vodyanoi enyergeticheskiy reaktor; water-water power reactor) is a series of pressurized water reactor designs originally developed in the Soviet Union, and now Russia, by OKB Gidropress.[2] The idea of such a reactor was proposed at the Kurchatov Institute by Savely Moiseevich Feinberg. VVER were originally developed before the 1970s, and have been continually updated. As a result, the name VVER is associated with a wide variety of reactor designs spanning from generation I reactors to modern generation III+ reactor designs. Power output ranges from 70 to 1300 MWe, with designs of up to 1700 MWe in development.[3][4] The first prototype VVER-210 was built at the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant.

Quick facts: VVER reactor class, Generation, Reactor conce...
VVER reactor class
View of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant site, with four operational VVER-1000 reactors.
GenerationGeneration I reactor
Generation II reactor
Generation III reactor
Generation III+ reactor
Reactor conceptPressurized water reactor
Reactor lineVVER (Voda Voda Energo Reactor)
Reactor typesVVER-210
Main parameters of the reactor core
Fuel (fissile material)235U (LEU)
Fuel stateSolid
Neutron energy spectrumThermal
Primary control methodControl rods
Primary moderatorWater
Primary coolantLiquid (light water)
Reactor usage
Primary useGeneration of electricity
Power (thermal)VVER-210: 760 MWth
VVER-365: 1,325 MWth
VVER-440: 1,375 MWth
VVER-1000: 3,000 MWth
VVER-1200: 3,212 MWth
VVER-TOI: 3,300 MWth
Power (electric)VVER-210: 210 MWel
VVER-365: 365 MWel
VVER-440: 440 MWel
VVER-1000: 1,000 MWel
VVER-1200: 1,200 MWel
VVER-TOI: 1,300 MWel

VVER power stations have mostly been installed in Russia and the former Soviet Union, but also in China, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Bulgaria, India, Iran and Ukraine. Countries that are planning to introduce VVER reactors include Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, and Turkey.