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Hape

Allikas: Vikipeedia

Disambig gray.svg  See artikkel räägib keemia mõistest; slängis võib "hape" tähendada LSD-d (hallutsinogeen ja psühhedeelikum)

Hape on keemiline aine, mis vesilahustes dissotsieerudes annab lahusesse vesinikioone. Selle happeteooria lõi Rootsi keemik Svante Arrhenius ja seda nimetatakse elektrolüütilise dissotsiatsiooni teooriaks.

Protolüütilise teooria ehk Brønstedi-Lowry teooria kohaselt on hape keemiline aine, mis keemilise reaktsiooni käigus loovutab prootoni, ehk hape on prootoni doonor.

Lewise teooria ehk elektronteooria kohaselt on hape osake, mis käitub elektronpaari aktseptorina. Seega happel peab olema vaba orbitaal.

Omad raskused on kõigil kolmel teoorial. Neist kõige laiemalt kasutatakse protolüütilist teooriat. Arrheniuse teooria kõlbab ainult vesilahuste uurimiseks.

Happed

Karboksüülhapped

Nukleiinhapped

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Hape
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