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Heterolüüs

Allikas: Vikipeedia

Heterolüüs tähendab millegi jagunemist erinevateks osadeks (kr heteros 'teine, muu' + lysis 'lahustumine, jagunemine'). Heterolüüsi tähendus keemias ja bioloogias on erinev.

Heterolüüs keemias

Keemias tähendab heterolüüs ehk heterolüütiline dissotsiatsioon molekulis ühe keemilise sideme mittesümmeetrilist katkemist, nii et sidet moodustanud elektronpaar jääb ühe fragmendi juurde. See tähendab keemilise sideme katkemist, nii et moodustub ioonpaarkatioon (omab vaba orbitaali ja on positiivse laenguga) ja anioon (omab vaba elektronpaari ja on negatiivse laenguga). Elektronpaar jääb seotuks enam elektronegatiivse fragmendiga.

A:B → A+ + :B- või A:B → A- + :B+

Näiteks karbokatioonsete intermediaatide moodustumine sideme R–X (X = Cl, Br, OH, SH, OTs jt) heterolüüsil ioniseeriva solvendi või katalüsaatori osalusel:

R–X → R+ + X-

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Heterolüüs
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