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Allikas: Vikipeedia

Disambig gray.svg  See artikkel räägib terviku esmasust rõhutavast õpetusest; analüütilise filosoofia mõiste kohta vaata artiklit Holism (analüütiline filosoofia)

See artikkel vajab toimetamist. (Jaanuar 2009) Palun aita artiklit toimetada. (Kuidas ja millal see märkus eemaldada?)

Holism on õpetus, mis rõhutab terviku esmasust selle osade ees. Holism on arusaam, mille kohaselt keerukate süsteemide käitumine ei ole determineeritud ega seletuv üksnes süsteemi algosakeste käitumise kaudu.

Holism on vastandvaade reduktsionismile (reduktsionismi kohaselt on iga süsteemi käitumine taanduv selle osakeste käitumisele). Teisalt on holism ja reduktsionism komplementaarsed kirjeldusviisid, mille koosrakendamine võimaldab keerukate süsteemide käitumist teaduslikult selgitada.

Holismi mõiste tuli kasutusele Jan C. Smutsi teose "Holism ja evolutsioon" (1926) kaudu.

Vaata ka


  • Elsasser, Walter M. 1998. Reflections on a Theory of Organisms: Holism in Biology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Smuts, Jan C. 1926. Holism and Evolution. MacMillan.
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