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third planet from the Sun in the Solar System / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Earth is the third planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the only planet known to have life on it. The Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago.[29][30]

Quick facts: Designations, Adjectives, Orbital characteris...
Earth 🜨
"The Blue Marble" photograph of Earth taken by the Apollo 17 mission. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the upper half of the disc, whereas Antarctica is at the bottom.
The Blue Marble, the first full-view photograph of the planet
taken by Apollo 17 astronauts in 1972
AdjectivesEarthly, terrestrial, terran, tellurian
Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000[1]
Aphelion152100000 km[2]
(94500000 mi; 1.017 AU)
Perihelion147095000 km[2]
(91401000 mi; 0.98327 AU)
149598023 km[3]
(92955902 mi; 1.00000102 AU)
365.256363004 d[4]
(1.00001742096 yr)
29.78 km/s[5]
(107200 km/h; 66600 mph)
−11.26064°[5] to J2000 ecliptic
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
6371.0 km (3958.8 mi)[9]
Equatorial radius
6378.1 km (3963.2 mi)[10][11]
Polar radius
6356.8 km (3949.9 mi)[12]
1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)
  • 510072000 km2 (196940000 sq mi)[16][17][18]
  • 148940000 km2 land (57510000 sq mi; 29.2%)
  • 361132000 km2 water (139434000 sq mi; 70.8%)
Volume260 billion cubic miles [19]
Mass5.97237×1024 kg (1.31668×1025 lb)[20]
(3.0×10−6 M)
Mean density
5.514 g/cm3 (0.1992 lb/cu in)[5]
9.807 m/s2 (1 g; 32.18 ft/s2)[21]
11.186 km/s[5]
(40270 km/h; 25020 mph)
0.99726968 d[23]
(23h 56m 4.100s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
0.4651 km/s[24]
(1674.4 km/h; 1040.4 mph)
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin 184 K[25] 288 K[26] 330 K[27]
Celsius −89.2 °C 14.9 °C 56.9 °C
Fahrenheit −128.5 °F 58.7 °F 134.3 °F
Surface pressure
101.325 kPa (at MSL)
Composition by volume

It is one of four rocky planets on the inner side of the Solar System. The other three are Mercury, Venus, and Mars.

The large mass of the Sun keeps the Earth in orbit through the force of gravity.[31] Earth also turns around in space, so that different parts face the Sun at different times. Earth goes around the Sun once (one year) for every 36514 times it turns around (one day).

Earth is the only planet in the Solar System that has a large amount of liquid water on its surface.[32][33][34] About 74% of the surface of Earth is covered by liquid or frozen water.[35] Because of this, people sometimes call it the blue planet.[36]

Because of its water, Earth is home to millions of species of plants and animals which need water to survive.[37][38] The things that live on Earth have changed its surface greatly. For example, early cyanobacteria changed the air and gave it oxygen. The living part of Earth's surface is called the "biosphere".[39]

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