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人工智能哲学

维基百科,自由的百科全书

人工智慧哲学试图回答下列问题[1]

  • 机械可以有智慧的运作吗? 可以解决人透过思考处理的所有问题吗?
  • 人类智慧和人工智慧是一样的吗? 人脑本质上是电脑吗?
  • 机械可以如同人类一般拥有自己的精神、心理状态和意识吗?能感知东西是如何吗?

这三个问题分别反映了人工智慧开发者、语言学家、认知科学家和哲学家的不同兴趣。透过讨论 “智能”、“意识”的定义,和“机械”究竟是什么,来寻找这些问题的科学答案。

人工智慧哲学的重要主张包括:

  • 图灵礼貌公约:如果一个机器的行为可以如人类一般,那么它就和人类拥有同样的智能。[2]
  • 达特茅斯提议:“如果可以精确的描述学习的所有面向,或智能的任何其它特征,一个机器就可以被制造来模拟它。”[3]
  • 纽厄尔司马贺物理符号系统英语Physical_symbol_system假设:“物理符号系统具有执行一般智能动作必要的和充分的手段。”[4]
  • 塞尔强人工智慧假设:“只要电脑有适当的程式让能够正确的输入和输出,就能拥有与人类精神相同意义的精神。”[5]
  • 霍布斯机制:“理性只是计算。”[6]

参见

参考文献

  1. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003,第947页 define the philosophy of AI as consisting of the first two questions, and the additional question of the ethics of artificial intelligence. Fearn 2007,第55页 writes "In the current literature, philosophy has two chief roles: to determine whether or not such machines would be conscious, and, second, to predict whether or not such machines are possible." The last question bears on the first two.
  2. ^ This is a paraphrase of the essential point of the Turing test. Turing 1950, Haugeland 1985,第6–9页, Crevier 1993,第24页, Russell & Norvig 2003,第2–3 and 948页
  3. ^ McCarthy 等人 1955. This assertion was printed in the program for the Dartmouth Conference of 1956, widely considered the "birth of AI."also Crevier 1993,第28页
  4. ^ Newell & Simon 1976 and Russell & Norvig 2003,第18页
  5. ^ This version is from Searle(1999), and is also quoted in Dennett 1991,第435页. Searle's original formulation was "The appropriately programmed computer really is a mind, in the sense that computers given the right programs can be literally said to understand and have other cognitive states." (Searle 1980,p.1). Strong AI is defined similarly by Russell & Norvig(2003, p. 947): "The assertion that machines could possibly act intelligently (or, perhaps better, act as if they were intelligent) is called the 'weak AI' hypothesis by philosophers, and the assertion that machines that do so are actually thinking (as opposed to simulating thinking) is called the 'strong AI' hypothesis."
  6. ^ Hobbes 1651,chpt. 5


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人工智能哲学
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