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原子论

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原子论(英语:Atomism,来自古希腊语atomos,含义为“不可分割”)是在一些古代传统中发展出的一种自然哲学。原子论者将自然世界理论化为由两基本部分所构成:不可分割的原子和空无的虚空(void)。

简介

依据亚里士多德引述的原子论观点,原子是不可构造的和永恒不变的,并且形状和大小有无穷的变化。它们在空无(empty)中移动,相互碰离,有时变成与一个或多个其他原子相钩结而形成聚簇(cluster)。不同形状、排列和位置的聚簇引起世界上各种宏观物质(substance)。[1][2]

溯源

对原子概念的记述可以上溯到古希腊古印度。在西方,对原子的记述出现在公元前5世纪留基伯德谟克利特的著作中[3]。有人将印度耆那教[4][5]的原子论认定为开创者大雄在公元前6世纪提出,并将与其同时代六师外道正命论英语Ājīvika顺世派先驱的元素思想也称为原子论[6]。对于印度文化影响希腊还是反之,亦或二者独立演化迄今仍存在争议。[7]

在古印度哲学中,正理派胜论派后来发展出了原子如何组合成更复杂物体的理论。[8]佛教中,在对应于元素论四界学说基础上,发展出了对应原子论的极微学说,后来进一步演绎出成规模体系的色聚理论。

注解

  1. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics I, 4, 985b 10–15.
  2. ^ Berryman, Sylvia, "Ancient Atomism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/atomism-ancient/
  3. ^ The atomists, Leucippus and Democritus: fragments, a text and translation with a commentary by C.C.W. Taylor, University of Toronto Press Incorporated 1999, ISBN 0-8020-4390-9, pp. 157-158.
  4. ^ Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti. Indian Atomism: History and Sources. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press. 1981. ISBN 0-391-02177-X. OCLC 10916778. 
  5. ^ Iannone, A. Pablo. Dictionary of World Philosophy. Routledge. 2001: 83,356. ISBN 0415179955. OCLC 44541769. 
  6. ^ Thomas McEvilley, The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies ISBN 1-58115-203-5, Allwarth Press, 2002, p. 317-321.
  7. ^ Teresi, Dick. Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science. Simon & Schuster. 2003: 213–214. ISBN 074324379X. 
  8. ^ Richard King, Indian philosophy: an introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought, , Edinburgh University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-7486-0954-7, pp. 105-107.

参考书目

  • Clericuzio, Antonio. Elements, Principles, and Corpuscles; a study of atomism and chemistry in the seventeenth century. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
  • Cornford, Francis MacDonald. Plato's Cosmology: The Timaeus of Plato. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1957.
  • Dijksterhuis, E. The Mechanization of the World Picture. Trans. by C. Dikshoorn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969. ISBN 0-691-02396-4
  • Firth, Raymond. Religion: A Humanist Interpretation. Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-12897-8.
  • Gangopadhyaya, Mrinalkanti. Indian Atomism: history and sources. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1981. ISBN 0-391-02177-X
  • Gardet, L. "djuz'" in Encyclopaedia of Islam CD-ROM Edition, v. 1.1. Leiden: Brill, 2001.
  • Gregory, Joshua C. A Short History of Atomism. London: A. and C. Black, Ltd, 1981.
  • Kargon, Robert Hugh. Atomism in England from Hariot to Newton. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.
  • Lloyd, G. E. R. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of his Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968. ISBN 0-521-09456-9
  • Lloyd, G. E. R. Greek Science After Aristotle. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973. ISBN 0-393-00780-4
  • Marmara, Michael E. "Causation in Islamic Thought." Dictionary of the History of Ideas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1973-74. online at the of Virginia Electronic Text Center.
  • Redondi, Pietro. Galileo Heretic. Translated by Raymond Rosenthal. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-691-02426-X
  • McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. New York: Allworth Communications Inc. ISBN 1-58115-203-5.

参见

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