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实验哲学

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实验哲学(Experimental Philosophy)是一种新的哲学流派,旨在结合实证研究与传统的哲学研究方法。[1][2][3][4][5] 实验哲学家利用认知科学的方法来了解普通人对于一些基础哲学问题的想法。[6][7][8][9]

实验哲学家认为,经由了解哲学直觉(philosophical intuitions)的心智背景,他们的实验结果可以间接影响哲学研究。[10] 这对于实验结果的依靠被广泛的认为是反对于一种只依靠于先验证明的哲学研究方法,有时被称为"扶手椅"哲学("armchair" philosophy)。[4][5] 哲学家对于实验哲学的影响有不同的认见,而也有一些哲学家提出对于实验哲学的批评。[11][12][13]

最早的实验哲学是专注于关于跨文化差异(cross-cultural difference)[14][15]自由意志 [16],与行动理论 [17][18] 的问题。现在,实验哲学已被扩大到新的领域。

注释

  1. ^ Lackman, Jon. The X-Philes Philosophy meets the real world, Slate, March 2, 2006.
  2. ^ Appiah, Anthony. The New New Philosophy, New York Times, December 9, 2007.
  3. ^ Appiah, Anthony. The 'Next Big Thing' in Ideas, National Public Radio, January 3, 2008.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Shea, Christopher. Against Intuition, Chronicle of Higher Education, October 3, 2008.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Edmonds, David and Warburton, Nigel. Philosophy's great experiment 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-09-30., Prospect, March 1, 2009
  6. ^ The Experimental Philosophy Page 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2015-04-05..
  7. ^ Prinz, J. Experimental Philosophy, YouTube September 17, 2007.
  8. ^ Knobe, Joshua. What is Experimental Philosophy? The Philosophers' Magazine (28) 2004.
  9. ^ Knobe, Joshua and Nichols, Shaun. An Experimental Philosophy Manifesto, in Knobe & Nichols (eds.) Experimental Philosophy 2008.
  10. ^ Knobe, Joshua and Nichols, Shaun. An Experimental Philosophy Manifesto, in Knobe & Nichols (eds.) Experimental Philosophy, § 2.1. 2008.
  11. ^ Kauppinen, A. (2007). The Rise and Fall of Experimental Philosophy. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-08-05. Philosophical Explorations 10 (2), pp. 95–118.
  12. ^ Ludwig, K. (2007). The Epistemology of Thought Experiments: First vs. Third Person Approaches 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2012-03-10.. Midwest Studies in Philosophy. 31:128-159.
  13. ^ Cullen, S. (forthcoming). Survey-Driven Romanticism. European Review of Philosophy, 9.
  14. ^ Weinberg, J., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2001). Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-08-03. Philosophical Topics 29, pp. 429–460.
  15. ^ Machery, E., Mallon, R., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2004). Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style. Cognition 92, pp. B1-B12.
  16. ^ Nahmias,E., Morris, S., Nadelhoffer, T. & Turner, J. Surveying Freedom: Folk Intuitions about Free Will and Moral Responsibility 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2009-11-22.. Philosophical Psychology (18) 2005 p.563
  17. ^ Knobe, J. (2003a). Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language, Analysis 63, pp. 190–193.
  18. ^ Shaun Nichols & Joseph Ulatowski (2007). Intuitions and Individual Differences: The Knobe Effect Revisited.[永久失效链接] Mind & Language 22 (4):346–365.

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