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拉齐

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Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī
出生 854 CE [1]
波斯雷伊[2]
逝世 932或925 CE[2]
波斯雷伊
时代 伊斯兰黄金时代
地区 伊斯兰哲学
学派 Persian science英语Persian science, Islamic medicine英语Islamic medicine
主要领域
化学, 医学, 哲学
著名思想
Discovered alcohol (ethanol) in its pure form, the first to produce such as 硫酸, writing up limited or extensive notes on diseases such as 天花 and 水痘, a pioneer in 眼科学, author of first book on pediatrics, making leading contributions in 无机化合物 and 有机化学, also the author of several philosophical works

拉齐波斯语ابوبكر محمّد زکرياى رازى‎ ,Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī ;865年8月26日-925年),波斯医师、炼金术师、化学家、哲学家。他博学多才,为早期医学、化学、音乐和哲学领域做出很大贡献。医学方面,他发现天花麻疹是两种不同的疾病,并最早阐明了过敏和免疫的原理。化学上,他发现乙醇,并认为元素嬗变为金银是可能的。他创立了完善的蒸馏和提取方法,并通过蒸馏绿矾(油)和石油,分别发现硫酸煤油。一生著有200部书籍和文章,记载了他在各领域的探索。

参考文献

  1. ^ Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science (ISBN 978-1-84614-161-4)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Iskandar, Albert. Al-Rāzī. Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures 2nd. Springer: 155–156. 2006. 

扩展阅读

第一手文献

拉齐所作

  • Arberry, A.J. The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes (PDF). The Wisdom of the East Series. The Liberty Fund. 1950. 
  • See C. Brockelmann英语C. Brockelmann for the manuscript of Razi's extant books in general, see Brockelmann, GAL, I, pp. 268–71 (second edition), Suppl., Vol. I, pp. 418–21.
  • Paul Kraus, Abi Bakr Mohammadi Filii Zachariae Raghensis: Opera Philosophica, fragmentaque quae superssunt. Pars Prior. Cairo 1939. Note: this is the only edition of Al-Razi's philosophical books and fragments still extant. Only the first volume was published since Kraus's suicide prevented the publication of the second volume for which he already had gathered a great amount of material. This material was transferred, after his death, to the Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale, in Cairo; it still remains to be published. [来源请求]
  • Abdul Latif Muhammad al-Abd. Al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī li Abū Bakr al-Rāzī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahḍa al-Miṣriyya. 1978. 

他人所作

  • Ibn Al-Nadim, Fihrist, (ed. Flugel), pp. 299 et sqq.
  • Sa'id al-Andalusi英语Said Al-Andalusi, Tabaqat al-Umam, p. 33
  • Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat al-Atibba w-al-Hukama, (ed. Fu'ad Sayyid), Cairo, 1355/1936, pp. 77–78
  • J. Ruska, Al-Biruni als Quelle fur das Leben und die Schriften al-Razi's, Isis, Vol. V, 1924, pp. 26–50.
  • Al-Biruni, Epitre de Beruni, contenant le repertoire des ouvres de Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, publiee par P. Kraus, Paris, 1936
  • Al-Baihaqi, Tatimmah Siwan al-Hikma, (ed. M. Ghafi), Lahore, 1351/1932
  • Al-Qifti,Tarikh al-Hukama, (ed. Lippert), pp. 27–177
  • Ibn Abi Usaibi'ah,Uyun al-Anba fi Tabaqat al-Atibba, Vol. I, pp. 309–21
  • Abu Al-Faraj ibn al-'Ibri (Bar-Hebraeus),Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Duwal, (ed. A. Salhani), p. 291
  • Ibn Khallikan英语Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat al-A'yan, (ed. Muhyi al-Din 'Abd al-Hamid), Cairo, 1948, No. 678, pp. 244–47
  • Al-Safadi, Nakt al-Himyan, pp. 249–50
  • Ibn Al-'Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab, Vol. II, p. 263
  • Al-'Umari, Masalik al-Absar, Vol. V, Part 2, ff. 301-03 (photostat copy in Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah).

第二手文献

  • G. S. A. Ranking, The Life and Works of Rhazes, in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Congress of Medicine, London, 1913, pp. 237–68.
  • Al-Razi als Bahnbrecher einer neuer Chemie, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1923, pp. 118–24.
  • Die Alchemie al-Razi's der Islam, Vol. XXII,pp. 283–319.
  • Uber den gegenwartigen Stand der Razi-Forschung, Archivio di stori della scienza, 1924, Vol. V, pp. 335–47
  • H. H. Shader, ZDMG, 79, pp. 228–35 (see translation into Arabic by Abdurrahman Badawi英语Abdurrahman Badawi in al-Insan al-Kamil,Islamica, Vol. XI, Cairo, 1950, pp. 37–44).
  • E. O. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, Vol. II, p. 181.
  • S. Pines, Die Atomenlehre ar-Razi's in Beitrage zur islamischen Atomenlehre, Berlin, 1936, pp. 34–93.
  • Dr. Mahmud al-Najmabadi, Shah Hal Muhammad ibn Zakariya, (1318/1900)
  • Gamil Bek, Uqud al-Jauliar, Vol. I, pp. 118–27.
  • Izmirli Haqqi, Ilahiyat, Fak. Macm., Vol. I, p. 151; Vol. II, p. 36, Vol. III, pp. 177 et seq.
  • Abdurrahman Badawi英语Abdurrahman Badawi, Min Tarlkh al-Ilhad fi al-Islam Islamica, Vol. II, Cairo, 1945, pp. 198–228.
  • Hirschberg,Geschichte der Augenheilkunde, p. 101.
  • E. G.Browne, Arabian Medicine, Cambridge, 1921, pp. 44–53.
  • M. Meyerhof, Legacy of Islam, pp. 323 et seq.
  • F. Wüstenfeld英语F. Wüstenfeld, Geschichte der Arabischen Arzte und Naturforscher, ftn. 98.
  • L. Leelerc, Histoire de la medicine arabe, Paris, 1876, Vol. I, pp. 337–54.
  • H. P. J. Renaud, A propos du millenaire de Razes, in bulletin de la Societe Irancaise d'Histoire de la medicine, Mars-avril, 1931, pp. 203 et seq.
  • A. Eisen, Kimiya al-Razi, RAAD, DIB, 62/4.
  • Aldo Mieli, La science arabe, Leiden, 1938, pp. 8, 16.
  • Nasr, Science and Civilization in Islam, see. Razes: The Secret of Secrets, p. 273, also pp. 197–200, and Anawati: L'Alchemie arabe in Rased.
  • Browne, Edward Granville. Islamic Medicine. Goodword Books Pvt. Ltd. 2001. ISBN 81-87570-19-9. 
  • M. M. Sharif英语M. M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy
  • Walker, P. "The Political Implications of al-Razi's Philosophy", in C. Butterworth (ed.) The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: 哈佛大学出版社, 61-94.(1992)
  • Motazed, K. Mohammad Zakaria Razi

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