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教宗训令

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《教宗训令》的梵蒂冈手抄本
《教宗训令》的梵蒂冈手抄本

教宗训令》(拉丁语Dictatus papae)是一份可能由教皇额我略七世签署的关于27条应属教皇之权力的文件。[1] 一些历史学家认为这就是额我略七世本人写下或口述的,另一些认为是后人所撰,其中的每一条训令也有不同来源。[2] 1087年,红衣主教狄乌迪弟发行了一系列献给维克托三世的赦令集,其中所包含的教会法来自他搜集的各种资源。《教宗训令》与该赦令集是如此之相似,以至于有人认为宗教训令就是在该训令集的基础上写成的,所以其年代一定比1087年还迟。[3]

该训令的宗旨是教皇至上,其中“他可以罢免皇帝”一条使得世俗与宗教权力的界限被打破,并引起了世俗力量,特别是神圣罗马帝国皇帝亨利四世的反抗,自此之后教廷与神圣罗马帝国世俗权力之间的裂痕就愈来愈深了。[4]

内容

第一至五条
第一至五条
1 Quod Romana ecclesia a solo Domino sit fundata. 罗马教廷是由上帝独自创立的
2 Quod solus Romanus pontifex iure dicatur universalis. 罗马教宗本身就有权被称作全世界的(教宗)
3 Quod ille solus possit deponere episcopos vel reconciliare. 他自己(罗马教宗)就可以回复或罢免主教
4 Quod legatus eius omnibus episcopis presit in concilio etiam inferioris gradus et adversus eos sententiam depositionis possit dare. 他在一地的使节,即使等级较低,也应凌驾所有主教之上,可以免他们的职
5 Quod absentes papa possit deponere. 教宗可能会将缺席者免职
6 Quod cum excommunicatis ab illo inter caetera nec in eadem domo debemus manere. 除其他情况外,我们不应与被逐出教会者待在同一个房间中
7 Quod illi soli licet pro temporis necessitate novas leges condere, novas plebes congregare, de canonica abbatiam facere et e contra, divitem episcopatum dividere et inopes unire. 根据耗时不同,以下行为由他来做是合法的,制定新法、聚集新会众、为牧师建造一所修道院;另一方面,也可以将富有的主教辖区拆分或将贫穷的合并
8 Quod solus possit uti imperialibus insigniis. 他本人可使用帝国徽章
9 Quod solius papae pedes omnes principes deosculentur. 所有的诸侯都应亲吻教皇的脚
10 Quod illius solius nomen in ecclesiis recitetur. 他的名字必须在教堂中谈及
11 Quod hoc unicum est nomen in mundo. 这个头衔(教皇)是世界上独一无二的
12 Quod illi liceat imperatores deponere. 他可以罢免皇帝
13 Quod illi liceat de sede ad sedem necessitate cogente episcopos transmutare. 如果有必要,他可以迁移主教
14 Quod de omni ecclesia quocunque voluerit clericum valeat ordinare. 他有权任命任何教堂的他想要的僧侣
15 Quod ab illo ordinatus alii ecclesiae preesse potest, sed non militare; et quod ab aliquo episcopo non debet superiorem gradum accipere. 他任命的人可以主持另一个教派,但未必是从属地位;也未必从别的主教那里接受更高职务
16 Quod nulla synodus absque precepto eius debet generalis vocari. 没有他的命令,任何一个宗教大会不得称作是普遍的
17 Quod nullum capitulum nullusque liber canonicus habeatur absque illius auctoritate. 没有他的许可,任何宪章或书籍都不得被认为是权威的
18 Quod sententia illius a nullo debeat retractari et ipse omnium solus retractare possit. 除他自己之外,他做出的判决不得被任何人撤销
19 Quod a nemine ipse iudicari debeat. 他自己不能受任何人审判
20 Quod nullus audeat condemnare apostolicam sedem apellantem. 任何人不得给受使徒吸引者定罪
21 Quod maiores cause cuiuscunque ecclesiae ad eam referri debeant. 以后各个教堂的更重要的事件都应参考(该训令)
22 Quod Romana ecclesia nunquam erravit nec imperpetuum scriptura testante errabit. 罗马教廷从不犯错,以后也永远不会犯错,圣经将见证这一切
23 Quod Romanus pontifex, si canonice fuerit ordinatus, meritis beati Petri indubitanter efficitur sanctus testante sancto Ennodio Papiensi episcopo ei multis sanctis patribus faventibus, sicut in decretis beati Symachi pape continetur. 如果一个罗马教宗是按照教规任命的,那么他毫无疑问是拥有圣彼得美德的圣人;帕维亚主教圣恩诺迪乌斯,将见证著一切,很多圣父也会同意他。这也被包含在教皇圣西马库斯的法令中
24 Quod illius precepto et licentia subiectis liceat accusare. 若有他的命令或许可,下级进行指控是合法的
25 Quod absque synodali conventu possit episcopos deponere et reconciliare. 他可以不经宗教大会就任免主教
26 Quod catholicus non habeatur, qui non concordat Romanae ecclesiae. 和罗马教廷有歧见的不能被认为是正教徒
27 Quod a fidelitate iniquorum subiectos potest absolvere. 他可以赦免忠实于邪恶之人者

参考文献

引用

  1. ^ In a series of letters issued to bishop Opizo of Lodi. Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Sia fatta la mia volontà. Medioevo: p. 77. 
  2. ^ Ernst Sackur has made it probable that the so-called "Dictatus Papæ" were composed by Deusdedit.", Catholic Encyclopaedia, sub "Cardinal Deusdedit".
  3. ^ "Until quite recently Gregory VII himself was generally regarded as the author; Löwenfeld (see below) continued to maintain the authorship of Gregory, but Sackur, however, has shown that the "Indices capitulorum" in the "Collectio canonum" of Deusdedit are closely related to the brief theses known as "Dictatus Papæ" both in respect of sense and verbal text. Most probably, therefore, the latter are taken from the collection of Deusdedit, who put them together from the "Registrum Epistolarum" or letterbook of Gregory. Possibly also Deusdedit was the editor of this famous and important collection of Gregory's correspondence." Catholic Encyclopedia 1908, sub "Cardinal Deusdedit".
  4. ^ Dictatus papae, Western Oregon University

书目

  • Medieval Sourcebook: Dictatus papae from Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 366–367; reprinted in Brian Tierney, ed., The Middle Ages, Vol. I: Sources of Medieval History, 4th ed., (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983) pp. 142–143.
  • Das Register Gregors. VII, ed. E. Caspar (in series M.G.H. Epistolae Selectae ii, Berlin 1920-3), pp. 202–8: section translated by G.A. Loud
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教宗训令
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