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圣文德

维基百科,自由的百科全书

圣文都辣
会士、精修圣人主教教会圣师
出生 约于 1221年
教宗国 拉齐奥 维泰博省 巴尼奥雷焦
逝世 7月15日 1274年(52-53岁)
阿尔勒王国英语Kingdom of Arles 里昂内省 里昂
敬礼于 罗马天主教
封圣 1482 1482年4月14日
教宗西斯都四世
罗马
瞻礼 7月15日
7月第二个主日 (1482–1568)
7月14日 (1568–1969)
象征英语Saint symbolism 挂在灌木丛上的枢机主教帽;圣体盘英语Ciborium (container)圣体圣事;穿着方济各会会衣的枢机,通常在读书或写字

圣文德,天主教译为圣文都辣,或译波拿文德拉波那文都O.F.M.义大利语San Bonaventura,1221年-1274年)[1],是中世纪义大利经院哲学神学家哲学家。作为第七任方济各会总会长英语List of Ministers General of the Order of Friars Minor,他同时也是枢机主教阿尔巴诺教区总主教。

文德于1482年4月14被教宗西斯都四世尊奉为圣人,并于1588年被教宗西斯都五世列为教会圣师之一。文德因其完备的品德,被尊称为“色勒芬天使博士”(拉丁语Doctor Seraphicus)。

许多署名为文德中世纪的作品(其实并非文德所写),被以“伪文德文集英语Pseudo-Bonaventura”为名收集起来。

生平

圣文德,由 Claude François 所作
圣文德,由 Claude François 所作

文德于1221年生在义大利维泰博省巴尼奥雷焦(Bagnoregio),幼年时患重病,因圣方济各的祈祷而痊愈。二十岁时入方济各会,1243年至1248年在巴黎方济各会学习,之后在巴黎大学教导神学与《圣经》。

1257年任方济各会会长,当时整个修会人数超过三万,并且存在许多不同派别。文德注重学术运动,努力将神恩性的方济运动导入正轨。

1273年教宗国瑞十世命文德为枢机,兼亚巴若总主教。1274年国瑞召开里昂大公会议,商讨与希腊教会合一问题。文德是这次大公会议中最活跃、出力最多的人物,却在会议进行中的7月15日患病逝世。

1482年天主教将他荣列圣品,1588年晋封为教会圣师天主教每年以7月15日作为他的纪念日。

神学思想

  • 在小事上对神忠心,便是一件伟大、英勇的德行。修德真正的意义在于经常控制自己的意志,将一切思想,言语和行为奉献给神,让神的恩典贯注我们全部生命。
  • “神恩”与“体制”、“信仰”与“知识”绝非彼此对立,而是相辅相成。
  • 神与人是不同的,人无法用理性认识神,只能用类推的方式不明确的认知。[2]

其神学作品有《心灵迈向天主的旅程》《隆巴哲学思想注疏》《基督的神贫论》《纯全的生活》《自言》《三条路》《教父彼得郎巴德名言集注释》《圣经注释》与《神学概要》等。[3]

其哲学思想很大程度上受到奥古斯丁影响,甚至可视为奥古斯丁主义者之一员。

艺术形象

  • 看书的圣文德,由鲁本斯所作(c. 1620)
    看书的圣文德,由鲁本斯所作(c. 1620)
  • 圣文德的祈祷,由Francisco de Zurbarán所作(c. 1640-1650)
    圣文德的祈祷,由Francisco de Zurbarán所作(c. 1640-1650)
  • 文德迎接教宗钦使,由Francisco de Zurbarán所作(c. 1640-1650)
    文德迎接教宗钦使,由Francisco de Zurbarán所作(c. 1640-1650)
  • 圣文德,由Francisco Herrera the Elder所作(1628)
    圣文德,由Francisco Herrera the Elder所作(1628)
  • 圣文德,由Vittorio Crivelli所作(1481-1502)
    圣文德,由Vittorio Crivelli所作(1481-1502)
  • 阿尔巴诺总主教文德,由Tiberio d'Assisi所作(1509)
    阿尔巴诺总主教文德,由Tiberio d'Assisi所作(1509)
  • 文德的葬礼,由Francisco de Zurbarán所作(1629)
    文德的葬礼,由Francisco de Zurbarán所作(1629)

以文德为名的地区、教堂、学校

  • 加拿大魁北克省文德镇
  • 魁北克10号高速公路的蒙特娄段“文德高速公路”
  • Place Bonaventure and the adjacent Bonaventure Metro Station in Montreal, Quebec
  • Bonaventure Island and the Bonaventure River in the Gaspé Peninsula Region of Quebec
  • St. Bonaventure's College, a private Roman Catholic school, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
  • St Bonaventure's Catholic Comprehensive School, in Forest Gate, London, England
  • St Bonaventure Catholic School, at Edwards Gardens, Toronto, Canada
  • Mission San Buenaventura and the City of Ventura, California, officially named San Buenaventura, United States
  • St. Bonaventure High School in Ventura, California, United States
  • St. Bonaventure University, a Franciscan university, in Allegany, New York
  • St. Bonaventure Monastery, a complex of religious buildings, built for the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, located in Detroit, Michigan. Venerable Father Solanus Casey served here as the monastery porter from 1924-1946, meeting visitors at the friary door. The site is a popular pilgrimage site for Metro Detroit Catholics.
  • The Municipality of Buenaventura on the Pacific Coast of Colombia
  • The cities of San Benaventura in Chihuahua and San Buenaventura, Coahuila in Mexico and State of San Benaventura
  • Barangay San Buenaventura, a village in San Pablo City, Laguna, Philippines. Three small chapels can be found within the village in honour of Saint Bonaventura
  • St. Bonaventure's High School, a school in Hyderabad, Pakistan
  • St. Bonaventure's Church, a 16th-century Portuguese church is situated on the beach in Erangal near Mumbai. The annual Erangal Feast held on second Sunday of January, celebrating the Feast day of St. Bonaventure, attracts thousands of people of all faiths to this scenic spot. The Birthday Of St. Bonaventure is celebrated on the 15th of July every year.
  • St. Bonaventure Parish, Balangkayan Eastern Samar, Philippines
  • Bonaventure Hall, in Sacred Heart Parish Catholic School, in Patterson, California, USA
  • Bonaventure Residence Hall, in Viterbo University, in La Crosse, Wisconsin, USA
  • 台湾台北市文德女中
  • 香港慈云山圣文德书院
  • 香港慈云山圣文德天主教小学
  • 香港圣方济圣文德天主教小学

作品

Legenda maior, 1477
Legenda maior, 1477
  • Bonaventure Texts in Translation Series, St. Bonaventure, NY, Franciscan Institute Publications (15 volumes):
    • On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology, Translation, Introduction and Commentary by Zachary Hayes, OFM, vol. 1, 1996.
    • Journey of the Soul into God - Itinerarium Mentis in Deum translation and Introduction by Zachary Hayes, OFM, and Philotheus Boehner, OFM, vol. 2, 2002. ISBN 978-1-57659-044-7
    • Disputed Questions on the Mystery of the Trinity, translated by Zachary Hayes, vol. 3, 1979. ISBN 978-1-57659-045-4.
    • Disputed Questions on the Knowledge of Christ, translated by Zachary Hayes, vol. 4, 1992.
    • Writings Concerning the Franciscan Order, translated by Dominic V. Monti, OFM, vol. 5, 1994.
    • Collations on the Ten Commandments, translated by Paul Spaeth, vol. 6, 1995.
    • Commentary on Ecclesiastes, translated by Campion Murray and Robert J. Karris, vol. 7, 2005.
    • Commentary on the Gospel of Luke, translated by Robert J. Karris, (3 vols), vol. 8, 2001-4.
    • Breviloquium, translated by Dominic V. Monti, OFM, vol. 9, 2005.
    • Writings on the Spiritual Life, [includes translations of The Threefold Way, On the Perfection of Life, On Governing the Soul, and The Soliloquium: A Dialogue on the Four Spiritual Exercises, the prologue to the Commentary on Book II of the Sentences of Peter Lombard and three short sermons: On the Way of Life, On Holy Saturday, and On the Monday after Palm Sunday, vol. 10, 2006.
    • Commentary on the Gospel of John, translated by Robert J. Karris, vol. 11, 2007.
    • The Sunday sermons of St. Bonaventure, edited and translated by Timothy J. Johnson, vol. 12, 2008.
    • Disputed questions on evangelical perfection, edited and translated by Thomas Reist and Robert J. Karris, vol. 13, 2008.
    • Collations on the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, introduced and translated by Zachary Hayes, vol. 14, 2008.
    • Defense of the mendicants, translated by Jose de Vinck and Robert J. Karris, vol. 15, 2010.
  • The Journey of the Mind into God (Itinerarium mentis in Deum), Indianapolis: Hackett, 1993. ISBN 978-0-8722-0200-9
  • On the Reduction of the Arts to Theology (De Reductione Artium ad Theologiam), translated by Zachary Hayes, (Saint Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute, 1996. ISBN 978-1-57659-043-0
  • Bringing forth Christ: five feasts of the child Jesus, translated by Eric Doyle, Oxford: SLG Press, 1984.
  • The soul's journey into God; The tree of life; The life of St. Francis. Ewert Cousins, translator The Classics of Western Spirituality. Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press. 1978. ISBN 0-8091-2121-2. 
  • The Mystical Vine: a Treatise on the Passion of Our Lord, translated by a friar of SSF, London: Mowbray, 1955.
  • Life of St Francis of Assisi, TAN Books, 2010. ISBN 978-0-89555-151-1

参考文献

  1. ^ M. Walsh (编). Butler's Lives of the Saints. New York: HarperCollins. 1991: 216. 
  2. ^ 基督教两千年史,淘理博士主编,海天书楼,291-293
  3. ^ 简明大英百科全书中文版3,台湾中华书局,265。

扩展阅读

  • LaNave, Gregory F. "Bonaventure," in Paul L. Gavrilyuk and en:Sarah Coakley (eds.), The Spiritual Senses: Perceiving God in Western Christianity, Cambridge: Cambridge, University of Cambridge, 2011, 159-173.
  • Quinn, John Francis. The Historical Constitution of St. Bonaventure's Philosophy, Toronto: Pontificial Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1973.
  • Tavard, George Henry. From Bonaventure to the Reformers, Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2005 (Marquette Studies in Theology). ISBN 0-87462-695-1 ISBN 9780874626957.

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