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艾赛尼派

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艾赛尼派希伯来语אִסִּיִים‎,Isiyim希腊语ΕσσήνοιΕσσαίοι,或ΟσσαίοιEssḗnoiEssaíoiOssaíoi),又译爱色尼派,犹太教派,活跃在公元前2世纪到公元1世纪的第二圣殿时期,有学者称其可能源自撒都该祭司。[1]该派系较之法利赛和撒都该来说人数较少,艾赛尼人分布在各大城市,过着集体生活,推崇禁欲主义(有的甚至单身)、安贫乐道、每日清洁。在当时,很多相关教派共享相似的神秘主义、末世来世、弥赛亚观、和禁欲苦修。这些派系被学者们称之为“艾赛尼”。约瑟夫斯的记录称在罗马尤迪亚省有数以千计的艾赛尼人居住。

死海古卷的发现,使艾赛尼备受瞩目。虽然没有证据显示艾赛尼人编订了它们,古卷被认为是艾赛尼图书馆。这些文献保存了许多可能源自公元前300年希伯来圣经的抄本,经文直到1946年才启封。有的学者则认为是艾赛尼人创作了死海古卷。[2] 蕾切尔·埃莉诺却质疑艾赛尼人的存在。[3][4][5]

对艾赛尼最早的引述来自古罗马作家老普林尼的《自然历史》。[6]老普林尼在一些字段中记叙了艾赛尼人禁止娶嫁,不拥有财产,有多辈族人。在斐洛的记录中,艾赛尼人除了在以色列地活动以外,没有在其它地方出现,但老普林尼在恩戈地那里提到他们,恩戈地在死海旁边。

之后,约瑟夫斯在《犹太战史》就艾赛尼给出了详尽的描述,在《犹太古史》和《约瑟夫斯生平》中也略略提及。他生成自己拥有一手经验,并将 Essenoi 列为犹太三大派系之一,[7]撒都该人法利赛人并列。他记录了一些有关虔诚、独身、公有制、集体主义和坚守主日。他进而写道艾赛尼在仪式上每天早上浸水、进食前祷告、致力于慈善、压抑愤怒、研习古卷、保守秘密、铭记天使等。

老普林尼也是名地理学家,他将艾赛尼人定位在死海西北岸,这也是死海古卷被发现的地方。[8]

名称

约瑟夫斯在两本著作中使用 Essenes (艾赛尼)字眼[9][10],并在其它地方也对此提及。[11][12][13]但在有的地方,约瑟夫斯使用了 Essaios,也是代指 Essene[14]约瑟夫斯指出艾赛尼是当时犹太教的三大派系之一。[15]

斐罗的用词是 Essaioi,虽然根据语源学,他承认这个希腊原型“神圣的”是不准确的。[16]老普林尼的拉丁用词是 Esseni[6][17]

加布里尔·薄伽志尼暗示艾赛尼词源并没有找到,但词汇被巴勒斯坦地区广泛应用,包括库姆兰社区。[18]在死海古卷被发现之前,有许多理论猜测名字由希伯来迁移至希腊语,如 osey hatorah (守律法者),并在此之后出现在死海古卷中。[19]虽然有许多词源解释出版,但在1947年前这是唯一被学者们广泛接受的,由库姆兰社区自定义的词源。[20]词源的形式是 OssaioiEssaioiEsseni,这种变形被学者们所分析。[21]。在中世纪希伯来语中, Hassidim 代替了 "Essenes"。 这个希伯来词汇不是 Essaioi/Esseni 的词源,但东阿拉姆语 Hesi'im 则有可能。[22]还有人认为艾赛尼是希伯来语 chitzonim的音译,在密西拿中用来指代各种世俗派系。另一种理论认为名字是借用小亚细亚膜拜阿耳特弥斯的教派那里借用的,其行为和着重于犹太地的有些类似。[23]

然而,约瑟夫斯 – 即约瑟夫·本玛他提亚 – 出生在祭司家族,并自称是法利赛人。[24]“根据他的自传,从16到19岁时,约瑟夫斯就与各种犹太教派交流体验,以便择优加入,并最终认定法利赛对大众口味。在一个明显的时间冲突上,约瑟夫斯提及了他在荒漠与苦行的本纳斯待了3年,在19岁时终止。”[25]我们在《犹太战史》的第8节得知他对所谓的“艾赛尼”的真实感受:

"2.(119)在犹太人中有三个哲学派系。第一个叫法利赛;第二个叫撒都该;第三个,即 假装 是更苛刻门徒的,叫艾赛尼。最后一个是犹太人出身,在对待彼此上似乎比其它派系更加亲切关心。”[26]

地点

库姆兰建筑遗址
库姆兰建筑遗址

根据约瑟夫斯所述,艾赛尼人并不是聚居在“一个大型城市”中,而是“在各个城镇里散居”。[27]斐罗称有“多余四千人”,艾赛尼人居住在“巴勒斯坦和叙利亚境内”,[28]跟准确地说,“在犹太地的各大城市和许多村庄,在社会上都有其成员。”[29]

老普林尼将他们定位在“死海西岸,离海岸… 在上边的恩戈地。”[17]

现在,有些学者和考古学家认为艾赛尼人居住在库姆兰地,是沿死海犹太地沙漠边的高原;他们引述老普林尼的文献,认为死海古卷就是艾赛尼人所著。这一理论虽然没有盖棺定论,但成为学术界的主流意见。[30]

约瑟夫斯在描绘耶路撒冷锡安山区三墙壁上认为“艾赛尼之门”是其中“最古老的”一个,[31]可能暗指艾赛尼社区可能位于城市的这片角落,并在圣殿区定时集合。

传统

根据约瑟夫斯和斐罗的记录,艾赛尼过着严格的公有制生活 – 学者们常常将其与后世的修道院进行对比。许多艾赛尼社团都是独身制,但约瑟夫斯也提及其它艾赛尼派会订婚三年,之后结婚。[32]根据约瑟夫斯的记录,他们施行集体所有制,[33][34]根据集体利益选举领袖。[35]他们禁止起誓,[36]不拿动物献祭。[37]他们控制脾气,主张和平,[36]仅在防御劫匪时携带武器。[38]艾赛尼人不收奴隶,但彼此协作[39],由于公有制的缘故,不进行贸易。[40]约瑟夫斯和斐罗提供了有关他们生活、饮食、宗教仪式的详尽记录。

在长达三年的考察后,[41]新成员会起誓,包括对神灵的虔诚(το θειον)和对人类的慈善,维持生活的洁净,拒绝犯罪和不道德活动,维系条例,保存书籍,记录天使的名字。[42]他们的神学包括灵魂不死,在死后获得灵魂。[12][43]其中,活动的一部分包括用水来清洁,包括雨水和储藏的水。

在当时,清洁礼仪在巴勒斯坦地区是常见的活动,因此并不是艾赛尼所特有的。许多会堂都有清洁仪式。[44]洁净对于艾赛尼来说很重要,以至于他们在安息日时禁止排便。[45]

教父伊皮法纽(在公元4世纪)就艾赛尼内的两大派系做了分析:[22]

拿撒勒人 – 从民族上来看是犹太人 – 源自基拉迪特斯、巴士尼特斯和约旦河外[46]… 他们承认摩西并相信他获得了律法 – 不是这部律法,而是另一部律法。他们是坚守所有传统的犹太人,但不献祭或是吃肉。他们认为吃肉或献祭是不合法的。他们认为这些书都是编造出来的,不是天父所设立的制度。这是拿撒勒人和其它人所不同之处…[47]

除了这些拿撒勒派别以外,还有另一个紧密相关的组织,叫奥西恩人(Ossaeans)。他们是和前者一样的犹太人… 来自纳巴泰、以土利亚、摩押比特斯和艾尔利斯[48],盆地之外是经文所称的盐海… 虽然它与其它七个派系中的六个不同,唯一造成分裂的是拿撒勒人对摩西律法的态度。

如果库姆兰社团就是艾赛尼人,那么根据死海古卷,艾赛尼社团学校就是“雅哈达”(Yahad,即社区),用以将自己与其它犹太人区分开来,后者被贴上了“圣约违背者”的标签。

学术讨论

约瑟夫斯和斐罗对艾赛尼人进行了详尽的讨论。许多学者认为死海古卷是库姆兰艾赛尼后人所著;但这个理论受到广泛争议,例如,诺曼·高柏(N.Golb):

高柏认为库姆兰文献和遗址的原始研究有欠科学,只是单单从学术典故中断章取义。高柏认为,文献虽然详尽,风格各异;但遗址看上去类似堡垒,被长时间用作军事据点 – 包括第一世纪 – 因此艾赛尼人不可能在此居住;在1870年挖掘出的大墓地在库姆兰遗址以东50米,有超过1200口墓穴,包括妇女和儿童 – 老普林尼写到居住在死海的艾赛尼人“没有一个女性,弃绝所有享乐... 族人中没有生育”。高柏的书记叙了许多迪·瓦克斯(de Vaux)不成熟的结论,以及学术界毫无争议的接纳。他称文献可能来自耶路撒冷的图书馆,为躲避罗马入侵而保存于此。[49]

其它学者则表示反对—特别是约瑟夫斯描述了有的艾赛尼允许婚姻。[50]

另一问题是艾赛尼和斐罗的特拉普提派。有辩论称[谁说的?]特拉普提派是艾赛尼当时的一个支派,生活更加积极。[51]

关于艾赛尼形成的一个理论称其来自犹太大祭司,被称之为公义教师,后被乔纳森·马加比撺掇(不是撒度系祭司),贴上了“骗子”、“假祭司”的标签。[4][5]另一些追随者认为公义教师不单单是库姆兰艾赛尼的领袖,而且与耶稣十分相似,这早于福音150年。[30]劳伦斯·希夫曼认为库姆兰社区可以被称为撒都该式,不是艾赛尼,因为他们的合法性继承了撒都该传统。[52]

印度西南的多马基督徒可能与艾赛尼有关,根据泰米尔史诗,有人叫做 "Issani" 。[53]科恩DNA显示今天的拿撒勒人可能与艾赛尼马拉巴尔拿撒勒人有关。艾赛尼人常常是利未或科恩血统,这进一步解释了他们有祭司血统,有的则来自印度。[54]

相关条目

脚注

  1. ^ F.F. Bruce, Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Paternoster Press, 1956.
  2. ^ Hillel Newman, Ph.D Bar Ilan University : Proximity to Power and Jewish Sectarian Groups of the Ancient Period Brill ISBN 90-04-14699-7.
  3. ^ Ilani, Ofri. Scholar: The Essenes, Dead Sea Scroll 'authors,' never existed. Haaretz. 13 March 2009 [17 March 2009]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 McGirk, Tim. Scholar Claims Dead Sea Scrolls 'Authors' Never Existed. Time. 16 March 2009 [17 March 2009]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Rachel Elior Responds to Her Critics. Jim West. 15 March 2009 [17 March 2009]. (原始内容存档于21 March 2009). [来源可靠?]
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Historia Naturalis. V, 17 or 29; in other editions V,(15).73; the passage in question: "Ab occidente litora Esseni fugiunt usque qua nocent, gens sola et in toto orbe praeter ceteras mira, sine ulla femina, omni venere abdicata, sine pecunia, socia palmarum. in diem ex aequo convenarum turba renascitur, large frequentantibus quos vita fessos ad mores eorum fortuna fluctibus agit. ita per saeculorum milia — incredibile dictu — gens aeterna est, in qua nemo nascitur. tam fecunda illis aliorum vitae paenitentia est! infra hos Engada oppidum fuit, secundum ab Hierosolymis fertilitate palmetorumque nemoribus, nunc alterum bustum. inde Masada castellum in rupe, et ipsum haut procul Asphaltite. et hactenus Iudaea est.".  cf. English translation.
  7. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.119.
  8. ^ Barthélemy, D.; J. T. Milik, Roland de Vaux, G. M. Crowfoot, Harold Plenderleith, George L. Harding. Introductory: The Discovery. Qumran Cave 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1997: 5 [1955] [31 March 2009]. ISBN 0-19-826301-5. 
  9. ^ Josephus. The Wars of the Jews. 2.119, 158, 160.
  10. ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. 13.171-2.
  11. ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. 18.11.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. 18.18.
  13. ^ Josephus. The Life of Flavius Josephus. 10.
  14. ^ Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews. 17.346.
  15. ^ And when I was about sixteen years old, I had a mind to make trim of the several sects that were among us. These sects are three: - The first is that of the Pharisees, the second that Sadducees, and the third that of the Essenes, as we have frequently told you - The Life of Josephus Flavius, 2.
  16. ^ Philo. Quod Omnis Probus Liber. XII.75-87.
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 Pliny the Elder. Natural History. 5.73.
  18. ^ Boccaccini, Gabriele. Beyond the Essene hypothesis: the parting of the ways between Qumran and Enochic Judaism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 1998: 47. ISBN 0-8028-4360-3. OCLC 37837643. 
  19. ^ Goranson, Stephen. Others and Intra-Jewish Polemic as Reflected in Qumran Texts. (编) Peter W. Flint and James C. VanderKam. The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment 2. Leiden: Brill Publishers. 1999: 534–551. ISBN 90-04-11061-5. OCLC 230716707. 
  20. ^ For example, James C. VanderKam, "Identity and History of the Community." In The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, ed. Peter W. Flint and James C. VanderKam, 2:487–533. Leiden: Brill, 1999. The earliest known proposer of this etymology was P. Melanchthon, in Johann Carion, Chronica, 1532, folio 68 verso. Among the other proposers before 1947, e.g., 1839 Isaak Jost, "Die Essaer," Israelitische Annalen 19, 145–7.
  21. ^ VanderKam, Goranson, etc
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Lightfoot, Joseph Barber. On Some Points Connected with the Essenes. St. Paul's epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon: a revised text with introductions, notes, and dissertations. London: Macmillan Publishers. 1875 [17 March 2009]. OCLC 6150927. 
  23. ^ Essenes, Lawrence H. Schiffman, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls, Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia, 1994. 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期2011-01-15.
  24. ^ Whiston and Maier, 1999, Introduction, p.8
  25. ^ Ibid.
  26. ^ Whiston and Maier, 1999, "The Jewish War" - Chapter 8, p.736
  27. ^ Josephus (约). The Wars of the Jews. ;.';.
  28. ^ Philo (约;0–). Quod Omnis Probus Liber[永久失效链接]. XII..
  29. ^ Philo. Hypothetica[永久失效链接]. .'. in Eusebius. Praeparatio Evangelica. VIII.
  30. ^ 30.0 30.1 Ellegård, Alvar; Jesus – One Hundred Years Before Christ: A Study in Creative Mythology, (London ').
  31. ^ cf. map of ancient Jerusalem 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆.
  32. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. book II, chap.8, para.13.
  33. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.122.
  34. ^ Josephus (约94). Antiquities of the Jews. 18.20.
  35. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.123, 134.
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.135.
  37. ^ Philo, §75[查证请求]
  38. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.125.
  39. ^ Josephus (约94). Antiquities of the Jews. 18.21.
  40. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.127.
  41. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.137–138. Josephus' mention of the three-year duration of the Essene probation may be compared with the phased character of the entrance procedure in the Qumran Rule of the Community [1QS; at least two years plus an indeterminate initial catechetical phase, 1QS VI]. The provisional surrender of property required at the beginning of the last year of the novitiate derives from actual social experience of the difficulties of sharing property in a fully communitarian setting, cf. Brian J. Capper, 'The Interpretation of Acts 5.4', Journal for the Study of the New Testament 19 (1983) pp. 117-131; idem, '"In der Hand des Ananias." Erwägungen zu 1QS VI,20 und der urchristlichen Gütergemeinschaft', Revue de Qumran 12(1986) 223-236; Eyal Regev, “Comparing Sectarian Practice and Organization: The Qumran Sect in Light of the Regulations of the Shakers, Hutterites, Mennonites and Amish”, Numen 51 (2004), pp. 146-181.
  42. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.139–142.
  43. ^ Josephus (约75). The Wars of the Jews. 2.153–158.
  44. ^ Kittle, Gerhardt. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Volume 7. : 814, note 99. 
  45. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_a4hAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=essenes+defecate+sabbath&source=bl&ots=LGqywrrjsl&sig=uhzP4s-3Ecm8FWCeEZ54Yk6sjEE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=K4CjUvmgGcWh0QWewICICQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=essenes%20defecate%20sabbath&f=false
  46. ^ Gileaditis, Bashanitis and the Transjordan
  47. ^ Epiphanius of Salamis (约378). Panarion. 1:18.
  48. ^ Nabataea, Ituraea, Moabitis and Arielis
  49. ^ Golb, Norman. Who wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls?: the search for the secret of Qumran. New York City: Simon & Schuster. 1996. ISBN 0-684-80692-4. OCLC 35047608. [页码请求]
  50. ^ Josephus, Flavius. Jewish War, Book II. Chapter 8, Paragraph 13. 
  51. ^ Philo. De Vita Contemplativa. I.1.
  52. ^ James VanderKam and Peter Flint, The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls, p.251.
  53. ^ Manimekalai, by Merchant Prince Shattan, Gatha 27
  54. ^ Weil, S. (1982)"Symmetry between Christians and Jews in India: The Cananite Christians and Cochin Jews of Kerala. Contributions to Indian Sociology.

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