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词法学

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语言学
理论语言学
应用语言学
其他

词法学(英语:morphology,“组织与形态”[1]),又称形态学构词学,是语言学的一个分支,研究单词word)的内部结构和其形成方式。如英语的dog、dogs和dog-catcher有相当的关系,英语使用者能够利用他们的背景知识来判断此关系,对他们来说,dog和dogs的关系就如同cat和cats,dog和dog-catcher就如同dish和dishwasher。构词学正是研究这种单字间组成的关系,并试著整理出其组成的规则。

基本概念

英文字的根基(字根)

“Lexeme” 是指英文字的本根,dog 是dogs和dog catcher 的字根。虽然三字的义意不同,也与其字的根源有所关联。

字形(word form)和字词(vocabulary)

dog 和 cat 有不同的字形(word form) 。另一方面,Dog 和 dog catcher 是有不同解释的字词(vocabulary),他们所指的是不同的实体。

英文字的原形,称为词条(lemma;原形),其引用形式(citation form),即是指可于字典上查询的字词的根本原形(vocabulary)。

构词学模式

语言类型分类

注释

  1. ^ morphology (/mɔːrˈfɒləi/) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

延伸阅读

(Abbreviations: CUP = Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)
  • Anderson, Stephen R. (1992). A-Morphous Morphology. Cambridge: CUP.
  • Aronoff, Mark. (1993). "Morphology by Itself". Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Aronoff, Mark. (2009). "Morphology: an interview with Mark Aronoff". ReVEL, v. 7, n. 12, ISSN 1678-8931.
  • Åkesson, Joyce. (2001). Arabic Morphology and Phonology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill.
  • Beard, Robert. (1995). Lexeme-Morpheme Base Morphology. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2471-5.
  • Bauer, Laurie. (2003). Introducing linguistic morphology (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-343-4.
  • Bauer, Laurie. (2004). A glossary of morphology. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown UP.
  • Bubenik, Vit. (1999). An introduction to the study of morphology. LINCOM coursebooks in linguistics, 07. Muenchen: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-570-2.
  • Bybee, J. L. (1985). Morphology: A Study of the Relation between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Dixon, R. M. W. and Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (Eds). (2007). Word: A cross-linguistic typology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Foley, William A. (1998). "Symmetrical Voice Systems and Precategoriality in Philippine Languages". Workshop: Voice and Grammatical Functions in Austronesian. University of Sydney.
  • Haspelmath, Martin. (2002). Understanding morphology. London: Arnold (co-published by Oxford University Press). ISBN 0-340-76025-7. ISBN 0-340-76026-5.
  • Fabrega, Antonio & Sergio Scalise (2012). Morphology: from Data to Theory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  • Katamba, Francis. (1993). Morphology. Modern linguistics series. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-10101-5. ISBN 0-312-10356-5.
  • Korsakov, A. K. (Andreĭ Konstantinovich). (1969) The use of tenses in English. Korsakov, A. K. Structure of Modern English pt. 1. oai:gial.edu:26766 at http://www.language-archives.org/item/oai:gial.edu:26766
  • Kishorjit, N., Vidya Raj RK., Nirmal Y., and Sivaji B. (2012) "Manipuri Morpheme Identification", Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on South and Southeast Asian Natural Language Processing (SANLP), pp. 95–108, COLING 2012, Mumbai, December 2012
  • Matthews, Peter. (1991). Morphology (2nd ed.). CUP. ISBN 0-521-41043-6. ISBN 0-521-42256-6.
  • Mel'čuk, Igor A. (1993–2000). Cours de morphologie générale, vol. 1–5. Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal.
  • Mel'čuk, Igor A. (2006). Aspects of the theory of morphology. Berlin: Mouton.
  • Scalise, Sergio. (1983). Generative Morphology, Dordrecht, Foris.
  • Singh, Rajendra and Stanley Starosta (eds). (2003). Explorations in Seamless Morphology. SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-7619-9594-3.
  • Spencer, Andrew. (1991). Morphological theory: an introduction to word structure in generative grammar. No. 2 in Blackwell textbooks in linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16143-0; ISBN 0-631-16144-9
  • Spencer, Andrew and Zwicky, Arnold M. (Eds.) (1998). The handbook of morphology. Blackwell handbooks in linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-18544-5.
  • Stump, Gregory T. (2001). Inflectional morphology: a theory of paradigm structure. No. 93 in Cambridge studies in linguistics. CUP. ISBN 0-521-78047-0 (hb).
  • van Valin, Robert D., and LaPolla, Randy. (1997). Syntax : Structure, Meaning And Function. CUP

参见

外部链接


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词法学
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