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点茶

维基百科,自由的百科全书

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今日本的茶道仪式中,注汤(左)及用茶筅击拂(右)的场景。点茶在中国已不再流行,而是在日本延续

点茶,后人称点茶法,后衍生为日本之抹茶道,是东亚食茶方式之一种。在中国流行于宋代,为宋代生活中的四艺之一[1] [2],与花艺、鉴古、品香合称为“四般闲事”。后传入日本并延续至今,是茶道的主要茶艺。

点茶在明朝及其以后逐渐式微,现流行于日本一带。

宋茶

宋朝制茶“朝采即蒸”、“即蒸即焙”,不经萎凋和发酵,只有绿茶。《大观茶论》所载“白茶”为全国仅六株的特殊茶树,非今日之白茶[3]

流程简介

宋人喝茶不洗茶,甚至只喝第一泡。点茶前须先温盏,否则茶粉不易浮起[4]。点茶是煮水不煮茶,将水烧开、待九十度左右;温盏后将茶末(茶砖磨出的细茶粉)倒茶盏之中,加入少量沸水,使茶末和水相互混合成乳状、浓膏状茶液。接下来有节奏的点水,“点”在茶汤上,不能破坏茶面;另一只手以茶筅茶匙旋转打击和拂动茶盏中的茶汤,使之泛起汤花(泡沫)。这手法称为“运筅”或“击拂”[5]。茶汤表面呈现极小的白色泡沫,久而不散。

一碗茶之优劣,即以泡沫之分布来判断。此时倒出茶液,会极为浓稠的黏附碗边,绵密的汤花,让古人形容是“白乳浮盏面,如疏星淡月”[6]。茶汤色泽与采制技艺密切相关,纯白为上,青白、灰白次之,黄白、泛红为下。[5]

注释

  1. ^ . [2011-03-02]. (原始内容存档于2005-04-20). 
  2. ^ 诗情花意-中华插花展[失效链接]
  3. ^ 為什麼宋茶只有綠茶?. gushi.tw. [2018-08-10]. (原始内容存档于2019-06-02) (中文(台湾)). 
  4. ^ 茶录》所谓“凡欲点茶,先须劦盏令热,冷则茶不浮”。
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 国晶. 宋朝游历指南. 
  6. ^ 《延福宫曲宴记》:“上命近侍取茶具,亲手注汤击拂,少顷,白乳浮盏面,如疏星淡月”

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