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互鹵化物

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互鹵化物也稱鹵素間化合物,是指鹵素之間形成的化合物,通式為XYn,其中X重於Y,n通常為奇數。

F Cl Br I At
F
F2
Cl
ClFClF3ClF5
Cl2
Br
BrFBrF3BrF5
BrCl
Br2
I
IFIF3IF5IF7
IClI2Cl6
IBrIBr3
I2
At
AtCl
AtBr
AtI
At2(?)

目前未發現有由三種或以上的鹵素組成的互鹵化物,[1] 儘管一些書籍說明IFCl2IF2Cl 已被合成,[2][3][4][5] 並且理論上,通式為 BrClFn的化合物是穩定的。[6]

類型

特性

互鹵化物都是小分子共價化合物熔點沸點都較低。大多不穩定(常見的鹵素互化物的反應活性為ClF3﹥BrF5﹥IF7﹥ClF﹥BrF3﹥IF5﹥BrF ),易水解,並且各種化合物水解產物也不盡相同。水解產物中如果有不穩定的物種如次碘酸、亞氯酸等的存在則這些產物有可能繼續分解,生成更多的產物。如三氟化溴與水反應的產物包括溴酸、溴單質、氧氣和氟化氫等,另外一些反應活性更高的物質如三氟化氯與水則甚至產生如二氟化氧、一氟氧化氯等更多產物。

用途

互鹵化物主要用作鹵化劑。但是部分反應活性高的如三氟化氯則應用在一些諸如鈾的提取、火箭的高能燃料等特殊領域。

參考資料

  1. ^ 引用錯誤:沒有為名為Chemistry of Interhalogens的參考文獻提供內容
  2. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan., Chemistry of the Elements 2nd, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann: 824, 1997, ISBN 0080379419 
  3. ^ Meyers, Robert A. (編). Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology: Inorganic Chemistry 3rd. Academic Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0-12-227410-7. A few ternary compounds, such as IFCl2 and IF2Cl, are also known [no source given]. 
  4. ^ Murthy, C. Parameshwara. University Chemistry 1. New Age International. 2008: 675. ISBN 978-8122407426. The only two interhalogen compounds are IFCl2 and IF2Cl [no source given]. 
  5. ^ Sahoo, Balaram; Nayak, Nimai Charan; Samantaray, Asutosh; Pujapanda, Prafulla Kumar. Inorganic Chemistry. PHI Learning. 2012. ISBN 978-8120343085. Only a few ternary interhalogen compounds such as IFCl2 and IF2Cl have been prepared [no source given]. 
  6. ^ Ignatyev, Igor S.; Schaefer, Henry F., III. Bromine Halides: The Neutral Molecules BrClFn (n = 1–5) and Their Anions — Structures, Energetics, and Electron Affinities. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1999, 121 (29): 6904–6910. doi:10.1021/ja990144h. 
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互鹵化物
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