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打蘭(英語:dramdrachm藥劑學符號:ʒ;縮寫:dr[1][2]:C-6–C-7[3] ,最初為希臘古代的一個重量硬幣單位[註 1][4]它是常衡制的一個質量單位,也是藥衡制英語apothecaries' system的一個質量單位和體積單位。 [2]作體積單位時,常被稱為「液量打蘭」或「英液打蘭」,英文中則被稱為「fluid dram」、「fluid drachm」、「fluidram」或「fluidrachm」,縮寫為「fl dr」、「ƒ 3」或「fʒ」。[1][2]:C-17[3][5][6][7]



  1. ^ 作希臘重量和貨幣單位時譯作「德拉克馬


  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Simpson, John A.; Weiner, Edmund S.C. (編). drachm, n.. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. 1989, online version 2012 [2 July 2012]. ISBN 978-0-19-861186-8. OCLC 50959346. (原始內容存檔於2015-09-24). Spelt drachm or dram.  Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1897.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 National Institute of Standards and Technology (October 2011). Butcher, Tina; Cook, Steve; Crown, Linda et al. eds. "Appendix C – General Tables of Units of Measurement"頁面存檔備份,存於互聯網檔案館) (PDF). Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices頁面存檔備份,存於互聯網檔案館). NIST Handbook. 44 (2012 ed.). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology. ISSN 0271-4027. OCLC 58927093. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Boyer, Mary Jo. UNIT 2 Measurement Systems: The Apothecary System. Math for Nurses: A Pocket Guide to Dosage Calculation and Drug Preparation 7th. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2009: 108–9 [2 July 2012]. ISBN 978-0-7817-6335-6. OCLC 181600928. (原始內容存檔於2014-07-05). 
  4. ^ 引用錯誤:沒有為名為OEDdram的參考文獻提供內容
  5. ^ Royal College of Physicians of Dublin. Weights and Measures. The Pharmacopœia of the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland. Dublin: Hodges and Smith. 1850: xlvi [6 July 2012]. OCLC 599509441. 
  6. ^ fluidram. Merriam-Webster online. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. [2 July 2012]. OCLC 44475779. (原始內容存檔於2014-11-29). Definition of FLUIDRAM: variant of fluid dram 
  7. ^ Powell, Richard; Royal College of Physicians of London. Weights, Measures, &c. [measures of liquids sect.]. The Pharmacopœia of the Royal College of Physicians of London, M. DCCC. IX corr. and enl. 2nd. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme. 1809: 3 [6 July 2012]. OCLC 622876101. 
  8. ^ Donald J. Mastronarde. Introduction to Attic Greek. University of California Press. 19 March 1993: 222 [30 June 2012]. ISBN 978-0-520-07844-4. (原始內容存檔於2017-02-21). 
  9. ^ Smith, William. DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. 3rd American. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1886: 1062 [1 July 2012]. 
  10. ^ Ramsay, William Wardlaw. An elementary manual of Roman antiquities 7th. London: Charles Griffin and Company. 1883: 206 [1 July 2012]. 


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