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氯化鉀

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氯化鉀
識別
CAS號 7447-40-7  ✓
PubChem 4873
ChemSpider 4707
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey WCUXLLCKKVVCTQ-REWHXWOFAZ
ChEBI 32588
RTECS TS8050000
DrugBank DB00761
KEGG D02060
性質
化學式 KCl
摩爾質量 74.551 g·mol⁻¹
外觀 白色晶體
氣味 無味
密度 1.987 g/cm3
熔點 776 °C
沸點 1420 °C
溶解性 28.1 g/100 mL (0 °C)
34.4 g/100 mL (20 °C)
56.7 g/100 mL (100 °C)
溶解性 可溶於甘油,微溶於酒精,不溶於[1]
pKa ~7
折光度n
D
1.4902 (589 nm)
危險性
MSDS ICSC 1450
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
1
0
 
致死量或濃度:
LD50中位劑量
2500 mg/kg(2.5g/kg)(口服,大鼠), 142 mg/kg (靜脈,大鼠)[2]
相關物質
其他陰離子 氟化鉀溴化鉀碘化鉀
其他陽離子 氯化鈉氯化銣氯化鋰
若非註明,所有數據均出自一般條件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

氯化鉀(化學式:KCl),英文:Potassium chloride。氯化物的一種,白色結晶或結晶性粉末,易溶於甘油,難溶於,不溶於丙酮

製備

可以由氫氧化鉀鹽酸的酸鹼中和反應中製備而成。化學式如下:

KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O

氯化鉀亦可以由鹽酸碳酸鉀鉀鹽反應製備而成。

用途

氯化鉀在農業上是常用的肥料(一般稱為「鉀肥」),在台灣俗稱為「紅加里」。它還可用於醫藥、科學應用[3]及食品加工等。食鹽裏面以部分氯化鉀取代氯化鈉,可減少鈉的攝取、降低高血壓之可能性。但由於氯化鉀有苦味與金屬味,且鈉仍是人體必需的宏量元素,故無法完全取代氯化鈉。

注意

口服過量氯化鉀有毒;半數致死量約為2500 mg/kg(與普通毒性近似)。靜脈注射的半數致死量約為100 mg/kg,但是它對心肌的嚴重的副作用值得注意,高劑量會導致心臟停跳和猝死注射死刑就是利用氯化鉀過量靜脈注射而導致心臟停跳。

參考資料

  1. ^ Potassium chloride (PIM 430). International Programme on Chemical Safety. 3.3.1 Properties of the substance. [2011-01-17]. (原始內容存檔於2010-12-04). 
  2. ^ Sigma Material Safety Data Sheet - Potassium Chloride. Section 11. Sigma Chemical Company. Valid 7/2001.
  3. ^ 氯化钾. 來邦網. [2010-01-29]. 

延伸閲讀

  • Lide, D. R. (編), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86th, Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, 2005, ISBN 0-8493-0486-5 
  • Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, A. Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Pergamon. 1984. ISBN 0-08-022057-6. 

參見

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氯化鉀
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