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美洲原住民語言

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美洲原住民語言(有時也稱為印第安語)並不是一種語言,甚至也不是屬於一種語系,而是美洲所有原住民的各種語言的總稱。其中瑪雅語曾經有自己的文字系統。隨着15世紀末開始西方殖民主義者的到來,以印第安人為主的美洲原住民數量在幾百年的時間裏銳減,再加上文化的同化,美洲原住民的大部分語言已經滅絕,目前即使會說美洲土著語言的大部分人也是操雙語的人群。因為缺少研究材料,對美洲土著語言的研究很不足,目前對許多美洲土著語言的分類說法不一,尚不能把語系確定下來,只能暫時分為語組,大致有如下個語組,有幾百種以上的語言,有許多語言現在能流利的說的人不足幾十甚至幾個人,大部分已經滅絕。

南美的大語系:黑點表示孤立語言,灰點表示語系劃分有爭議的語言
南美的大語系:黑點表示孤立語言,灰點表示語系劃分有爭議的語言

語系種類

  • 薩利希語系(Salishan)分佈從加拿大西部到美國西部太平洋沿岸:
    • 貝拉庫拉語族(Bella Coola)
    • 海岸薩利希語族(Coast Salish)
    • 內陸薩利希語族(Interior Salish)
  • 卡多語系(Caddoan)分佈在美國中部大平原地區
  • 舒阿爾語系(Shuar)分佈在亞馬遜河上游森林中地區

美洲印地安人諸語言列表

  • 佩納德語族
    • 內茲入佩爾塞語
    • 克拉哪特語
    • 雅基馬語
  • 伊洛魁語族
  • 尤馬語族
    • 尤馬語(Yuma/Quechan)
    • 馬瑞科帕語(Maricopa)
    • 莫哈維語(Mojave)
  • 卡多語族
    • 卡多語
    • 波尼語
  • 阿爾岡昆諸語言
    • 布來克福特語
    • 帕薩馬科迪語
    • 阿拉帕霍語
    • 夏安語
    • 奧傑布韋語
    • 福克斯語
    • 德拉瓦爾語
  • 薩利希語系
  • 猶他-阿茲提克語族
  • 塔努安語族
    • 托瓦語
    • 泰瓦語
    • 提瓦語
  • Muskogean
  • 凱雷斯語族
    • 凱雷斯語
  • 蘇語族
    • 克羅語 (北美洲)
    • 溫內巴戈語
    • 歐塞奇語
  • 阿撒巴斯卡語族
  • Zoquean
    • 索克語
  • 歐托-曼格語系

參考文獻

引用

來源

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北美洲
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外部連結

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美洲原住民語言
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