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七氟化碘

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七氟化碘
别名 氟化碘(VII)
识别
CAS号 16921-96-3  ✓
PubChem 85645
ChemSpider 21477354
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey XRURPHMPXJDCOO-UHFFFAOYAO
性质
化学式 IF7
摩尔质量 259.90 g·mol⁻¹
外观 无色气体
密度 2.6 g/cm3 (6 °C)
2.7 g/cm3 (25 °C)
熔点 4.5°C (三相点)
沸点 4.8°C (1个大气压下升华)
溶解性 可溶[1]
相关物质
相关化学品 五氟化碘
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

七氟化碘是一种无机化合物,也称作氟化碘(VII),化学式为IF7[2][3]它具有不寻常的五角双锥构型,这与价层电子对互斥理论的预测一致。[4]七氟化碘的分子会透过Bartell假旋转英语Bartell mechanism机制进行原子重排,Bartell假旋转是一种类似Berry假旋转假旋转英语pseudorotation机制,不过只针对五角双锥构型的分子[5]。这种无色晶体在4.5 °C时熔化,液态的温度范围非常狭窄,因为沸点只有4.77 °C。高浓度的蒸汽有发霉、刺鼻的气味。

制备

IF7可以通过F2与液态IF5在90 °C下反应制备,然后将蒸汽加热到270 °C。另外,这种物质还可以使用氟与干燥的碘化钯碘化钾反应制得,用此法可尽量减少水解产生的杂质IOF5[6][7]

性质

七氟化碘能与一些路易斯酸发生加合反应形成配合物,例如:IF7·AsF5、IF7·BF3、IF7·3SbF5等。X射线衍射实验证实,IF7·AsF5的结构为IF+
6
AsF
6
。碱金属氟化物不溶于七氟化碘。但是IF7·AsF5和IF7·3SbF5氟化钾共热到200-250°C能产生氟气。[8]

安全

IF7对皮肤和粘膜具有强烈刺激性。它也是一种强氧化剂,与有机物接触会起火。

参考资料

  1. ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0070494398
  2. ^ Macintyre, J. E. (Ed.). (1992). Dictionary of Inorganic Compounds (Vol. 3). London: Chapman & Hall.
  3. ^ O'Neil, Maryadele J. (Ed.). (2001). The Merck Index (13th ed.). Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck.
  4. ^ Christe, Karl O.; Curtis, E. C.; Dixon, David A. On the problem of heptacoordination: vibrational spectra, structure, and fluxionality of iodine heptafluoride. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1993-02, 115 (4): 1520–1526 [2021-12-28]. ISSN 0002-7863. doi:10.1021/ja00057a044. (原始内容存档于2021-12-28) (英语). 
  5. ^ Adams, W. J.; Thompson, H. Bradford; Bartell, L. S. Structure, Pseudorotation, and Vibrational Mode Coupling in IF 7 : An Electron Diffraction Study. The Journal of Chemical Physics. 1970-11-15, 53 (10): 4040–4046 [2021-12-28]. ISSN 0021-9606. doi:10.1063/1.1673876. (原始内容存档于2021-12-28) (英语). 
  6. ^ Schumb, Walter C.; Lynch, Maurice A. Iodine Heptafluoride. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry. 1950-07, 42 (7): 1383–1386 [2021-12-28]. ISSN 0019-7866. doi:10.1021/ie50487a035. (原始内容存档于2021-12-28) (英语). 
  7. ^ Ruff, Otto; Keim, Rudolf. Das Jod-7-fluorid. Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 1930-10-10, 193 (1): 176–186 [2021-12-28]. ISSN 0863-1786. doi:10.1002/zaac.19301930117. (原始内容存档于2021-12-28) (德语). 
  8. ^ 张青莲. 《无机化学丛书》第六卷:卤素、铜分族、锌分族. 北京: 科学出版社. : P415–416. ISBN 7-03-002238-6. 

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七氟化碘
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