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三氧化钨

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三氧化钨
IUPAC名
Tungsten trioxide
别名 氧化钨、钨酸酐、氧化钨(VI)
识别
CAS号 1314-35-8  ✓
PubChem 14811
SMILES
InChI
RTECS YO7760000
性质
化学式 WO3
摩尔质量 231.84 g·mol⁻¹
外观 黄色粉末
密度 7.16 g/cm3
熔点 1473 °C
沸点 ~1700 °C
溶解性 不可溶
溶解性(其他溶剂) 可溶于碱,微溶于酸
结构
晶体结构 单斜晶系
配位几何 平面三角形
危险性
警示术语 R:R22-R36/37/38
安全术语 S:S26-S36
MSDS External MSDS
主要危害 可能对眼部、皮肤、呼吸和消化系统造成损害
闪点 N/A
相关物质
相关化学品 WO2H2WO4
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

三氧化钨化学式WO3)是(VI)的氧化物,是从钨矿制取单质钨工业的重要中间体。[1]该冶炼过程涉及两步:第一步用处理钨矿,制得WO3,然后用氢气还原三氧化钨,得到金属钨:

WO3 + 3H2 → W + 3H2O
2WO3 + 3C → 2W + 3CO2

制备

三氧化钨可由很多方法制备:

CaWO4 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2WO4
H2WO4 → H2O + WO3
(NH4)10[H2W12O42]·4H2O → 12 WO3 + 10NH3 + 11H2O

结构

三氧化钨的结构取决于温度:它在740 °C以上为四方晶系、330-740 °C为正交晶系、17-330 °C为单斜晶系、-50-17 °C为三斜晶系。单斜的结构最常见,其空间群为P21/n。[2]

化学性质

三氧化钨的性质随制备条件的不同(速率和温度)而不同:低温下制得的三氧化钨较活泼,易溶于水;[2]高温制得的三氧化钨则不溶于水。此外,若仲钨酸铵热分解时为还原性气氛,则产物为蓝色氧化钨(钨蓝,WO3-x),[3]组分不定,主要是三氧化钨、盐和二氧化钨

还原剂,如还原钨酸盐溶液也可得到“钨蓝”,使整个溶液呈蓝色。

用途

除制取金属钨外,黄色的三氧化钨也可作为颜料,用在陶瓷和涂料中。[1]使用红外线电致变色的非接触式车窗控制系统(Smart windows)中,也应用了三氧化钨。[4]

参考资料

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Patnaik, Pradyot. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Lassner, Erik and Wolf-Dieter Schubert. Tungsten: Properties, Chemistry, Technology of the Element, Alloys, and Chemical Compounds. New York: Kluwer Academic, 1999.
  3. ^ "Tungsten Oxides & Acids" International Tungsten Industry Association. 2003<http://www.itia.org.uk/Default.asp?Page=44页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆)>.
  4. ^ Lee, W.J.; Fang, Y.K.; Ho, J.; Hsieh, W.T.; Ting, S.F. J. Electron. Mater. 2000, 29 (2), 183.
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三氧化钨
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