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二氧化钛

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二氧化钛
IUPAC名
Titanium dioxide
Titanium(IV) oxide
识别
CAS号 13463-67-7  ✓
PubChem 26042
ChemSpider 24256
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey GWEVSGVZZGPLCZ-TYTSCOISAW
ChEBI 32234
RTECS XR2775000
KEGG C13409
性质
化学式 TiO2
摩尔质量 79.87 g·mol⁻¹
外观 白色固体
密度 4.23
熔点 1870 °C (3398 °F)
沸点 2972 °C (5381.6 °F)
溶解性(其他溶剂) 不可溶
热力学
ΔfHmo298K −945 kJ/mol[1]
危险性
欧盟分类 未列明
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
1
0
 
闪点 不可燃
相关物质
其他阳离子 一氧化钛
三氧化二钛
三氧化五钛
二氧化锆
二氧化铪
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

二氧化钛化学式为TiO2,俗称钛白粉,分子大小是奈米级为光触媒,能靠紫外线消毒及杀菌,已经有一些产品问世。 亦可用于化妆品中。 二氧化钛是水反应生成氢气和氧气的催化剂, 二氧化钛可制作成光催化剂,净化空气,消除车辆排放物中25%到45%的氮氧化物,可用于治理PM2.5悬浮颗粒物过高的空气污染。

存在形式

形式 晶系 合成
金红石 四方晶系
锐钛矿 四方晶系
板钛矿英语brookite 斜方晶系
TiO2(B)[2] 单斜晶系 Hydrolysis of K2Ti4O9 followed by heating
TiO2(H), hollandite-like form[3] 四方晶系 Oxidation of the related potassium titanate bronze, K0.25TiO2
TiO2(R), ramsdellite-like form[4] 斜方晶系 Oxidation of the related lithium titanate bronze Li0.5TiO2
TiO2(II)-(α-PbO2-like form)[5] 斜方晶系
baddeleyite-like form, (7 coordinated Ti)[6] 单斜晶系
TiO2 -OI[7] 斜方晶系
cubic form[8] 立方晶系 P > 40 GPa, T > 1600 °C
TiO2 -OII, cotunnite(PbCl2)-like[9] 斜方晶系 P > 40 GPa, T > 700 °C

制备

钛白粉的生产方法有硫酸法和氯化法两种。硫酸法是将钛铁矿经浓硫酸酸解成块状固相物,用酸性水浸取后得到钛液,经沉降除杂质、冷冻分离副产硫酸亚铁后,加晶种使硫酸氧钛分解生成偏钛酸。经水洗达标后煅烧、粉碎而制得钛白粉。

反应方程式:

H2SO4 + TiO2→TiOSO4 + H2O

Ti(SO4)2 + H2O→ TiOSO4 + H2SO4

TiOSO4 + H2O→H2TiO3↓+ H2SO4 H2TiO3·SO3→TiO2+H2O+SO3

氯化法是将粉碎后的金红石或高钛渣与焦炭混合,在硫化床氯化炉中与氯气反应生成四氯化钛,经净化,加入晶型转化剂于高浊罡氧化生成二氧化钛,再经水洗、干燥、粉碎得到。 反应方程式:

2TiO2 + 3C + 4Cl2→2TiCl4 + 2CO↑+ CO2

TiCl4(g)+O2 (g)→TiO2 (s)+ 2Cl2 (g)

用途

参考资料

  1. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. Chemical Principles 6th Ed.. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2009: A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X (英语). 
  2. ^ Marchand R., Brohan L., Tournoux M. A new form of titanium dioxide and the potassium octatitanate K2Ti8O17. Materials Research Bulletin. 1980, 15 (8): 1129–1133. doi:10.1016/0025-5408(80)90076-8. 
  3. ^ Latroche, M; Brohan, L; Marchand, R; Tournoux,. New hollandite oxides: TiO2(H) and K0.06TiO2. Journal of Solid State Chemistry. 1989, 81 (1): 78–82. Bibcode:1989JSSCh..81...78L. doi:10.1016/0022-4596(89)90204-1. 
  4. ^ Akimoto, J.; Gotoh, Y.; Oosawa, Y.; Nonose, N.; Kumagai, T.; Aoki, K.; Takei, H. Topotactic Oxidation of Ramsdellite-Type Li0.5TiO2, a New Polymorph of Titanium Dioxide: TiO2(R). Journal of Solid State Chemistry. 1994, 113 (1): 27–36. Bibcode:1994JSSCh.113...27A. doi:10.1006/jssc.1994.1337. 
  5. ^ Simons, P. Y.; Dachille, F. The structure of TiO2II, a high-pressure phase of TiO2. Acta Crystallographica. 1967, 23 (2): 334–336. doi:10.1107/S0365110X67002713. 
  6. ^ Sato H. , Endo S, Sugiyama M, Kikegawa T, Shimomura O, Kusaba K. Baddeleyite-Type High-Pressure Phase of TiO2. Science. 1991, 251 (4995): 786–788. Bibcode:1991Sci...251..786S. PMID 17775458. doi:10.1126/science.251.4995.786. 
  7. ^ Dubrovinskaia N A, Dubrovinsky L S., Ahuja R, Prokopenko V B., Dmitriev V., Weber H.-P., Osorio-Guillen J. M., Johansson B. Experimental and Theoretical Identification of a New High-Pressure TiO2 Polymorph. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2001, 87 (27 Pt 1): 275501. Bibcode:2001PhRvL..87A5501D. PMID 11800890. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.275501. 
  8. ^ Mattesini M, de Almeida J. S., Dubrovinsky L., Dubrovinskaia L, Johansson B., Ahuja R. High-pressure and high-temperature synthesis of the cubic TiO2 polymorph. Phys. Rev. B. 2004, 70 (21): 212101. Bibcode:2004PhRvB..70u2101M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.70.212101. 
  9. ^ Dubrovinsky, LS; Dubrovinskaia, NA; Swamy, V; Muscat, J; Harrison, NM; Ahuja, R; Holm, B; Johansson, B. Materials science: The hardest known oxide. Nature. 2001, 410 (6829): 653–654. Bibcode:2001Natur.410..653D. PMID 11287944. doi:10.1038/35070650. 

外部链接

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二氧化钛
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