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光电管

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光电管的基本结构是由一个U字形的碱金属与集电极所构成。
光电管的基本结构是由一个U字形的碱金属与集电极所构成。
两种不同的光电管。
两种不同的光电管。

光电管(Phototube),又称电眼光敏管,是光电效应的应用之一。利用金属在光照射之下所产生的光电子,再加以测量光电子之最大电压即可测定出光子波长。为了使能产生光电效应的光子频率更广,通常被照射的金属电极会选用游离能较低的碱金属(如:)。而窗口的材质取决于需要测定的波长范围。

若波长范围在于可见光之间,可选用普通玻璃作为窗口材质;

波长范围涉及紫外光,常选用石英作为窗口材质;

波长范围在红外光,常以硒化锌元素作为窗口材料。

使用须知

由于制造过程中为了保持光电管中的真空度,会添加额外的碱金属做为去气剂;以及使用过程中,部分碱金属电极因光线照射而成为游离态。使得光电管上经常附着著少许的碱金属。

因此,再进行测量前应对光电管施加一电压,使窗口上的碱金属气化。这个过程也就是在使用分光光度计的前置作业中,所谓的热机


应用


参考资料

  • Techniques in Organic Chemistry / Jerry R. Mohrig , Christina Noring Hammond , Paul F.Schatz
  • 光电效应
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光电管
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