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+ −



十五世纪的欧洲,人们通常使用字母 P 和 M 作为加号和减号。[1][2]P 来自拉丁语 plus 的首字母,意为“更多”;M 来自拉丁语 minus 的首字母,意为“更少”。1494 年,卢卡·帕西奥利威尼斯出版了自己的数学手册,其中首次使用了 p̄ 和 m̄(带横线的 P 和 M)表示加减。[3]

加号 + 即拉丁语 et 的简化,意为“与”,和符号 & 的来历相似。[4]减号 则可能源自 m̄ 上的波浪号,也可能只是 m 的简写。[5]


名称 字元 Unicode ASCII URL HTML (其他)
加号(Plus) + U+002B + %2B
减号(Minus) U+2212 %E2%88%92 − &x2212; −
连字暨减号(Hyphen-minus) - U+002D - %2D

Unicode 减号和等号同高同宽。在大部分字型,其亦和数字同宽,以利对位。

连字暨减号hyphen-minus sign)是 ASCII 版本的减号,亦用作连字号(hyphen)。其通常较加号短,高度亦不同。当只能用 ASCII 的场合可用来取代减号。



  1. ^ Ley, Willy. Symbolically Speaking. For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. April 1965: 57–67. 
  2. ^ Stallings, Lynn. A brief history of algebraic notation. School Science and Mathematics. May 2000 [13 April 2009]. (原始内容存档于2010-01-06). 
  3. ^ Sangster, Alan; Stoner, Greg; McCarthy, Patricia. The market for Luca Pacioli’s Summa Arithmetica (PDF). Accounting Historians Journal. 2008, 35 (1): 111–134 [p. 115] [2018-07-16]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2018-01-26). 
  4. ^ Cajori, Florian. Origin and meanings of the signs + and -. A History of Mathematical Notations, Vol. 1. The Open Court Company, Publishers. 1928. 
  5. ^ Wright, D. Franklin; New, Bill D. Intermediate Algebra 4th. Thomson Learning. 2000: 1. The minus sign or bar, — , is thought to be derived from the habit of early scribes of using a bar to represent the letter m 
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