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加号与减号

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+ −

加号减号(“+”和“”,合称加减号),是用来表示正数负数加法减法数学符号。此组符号还因为各种相对其他事物的类似之处而被赋予了丰富的抽象含义。

历史

十五世纪的欧洲,人们通常使用字母 P 和 M 作为加号和减号。[1][2]P 来自拉丁语 plus 的首字母,意为“更多”;M 来自拉丁语 minus 的首字母,意为“更少”。1494 年,卢卡·帕西奥利威尼斯出版了自己的数学手册,其中首次使用了 p̄ 和 m̄(带横线的 P 和 M)表示加减。[3]

加号 + 即拉丁语 et 的简化,意为“与”,和符号 & 的来历相似。[4]减号 则可能源自 m̄ 上的波浪号,也可能只是 m 的简写。[5]

字元编码

加号、减号和“连字暨减号”
加号、减号和“连字暨减号”
名称 字元 Unicode ASCII URL HTML (其他)
加号(Plus) + U+002B + %2B
减号(Minus) U+2212 %E2%88%92 − &x2212; −
连字暨减号(Hyphen-minus) - U+002D - %2D

Unicode 减号和等号同高同宽。在大部分字型,其亦和数字同宽,以利对位。

连字暨减号hyphen-minus sign)是 ASCII 版本的减号,亦用作连字号(hyphen)。其通常较加号短,高度亦不同。当只能用 ASCII 的场合可用来取代减号。

参见

参考资料

  1. ^ Ley, Willy. Symbolically Speaking. For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. April 1965: 57–67. 
  2. ^ Stallings, Lynn. A brief history of algebraic notation. School Science and Mathematics. May 2000 [13 April 2009]. (原始内容存档于2010-01-06). 
  3. ^ Sangster, Alan; Stoner, Greg; McCarthy, Patricia. The market for Luca Pacioli’s Summa Arithmetica (PDF). Accounting Historians Journal. 2008, 35 (1): 111–134 [p. 115] [2018-07-16]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2018-01-26). 
  4. ^ Cajori, Florian. Origin and meanings of the signs + and -. A History of Mathematical Notations, Vol. 1. The Open Court Company, Publishers. 1928. 
  5. ^ Wright, D. Franklin; New, Bill D. Intermediate Algebra 4th. Thomson Learning. 2000: 1. The minus sign or bar, — , is thought to be derived from the habit of early scribes of using a bar to represent the letter m 
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加号与减号
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