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区位论(德语:Standortstheorie,英语:location theory),又称区位理论,是关注经济活动地理区位的理论,已成为经济地理学区域科学和空间经济学不可或缺的组成部分。区位论要解决的是经济活动的地理方位及其形成原因的问题。区位论——像个体经济学一样——假设行为的主体为自身的利益而活动。因此,企业的区位选择是为利润最大化,而个体的区位选择是为了利益的最大化。


区位论的开创以德国经济地理学家约翰·海因里希·冯·杜能于1826年发表的著作《孤立国同农业和国民经济的关系》第一卷为标志。[1] [2]著名区域学家Walter Isard称杜能为“区位论之父”。[3]在《孤立国》中,杜能指出运输货物的花费会消耗一些李嘉图经济租。因为运送产品将会产生运费,当然经济租、货物的种类、土地使用类型和程度与市场无关。



  1. ^ Thünen, Johann Heinrich von. 1783-1850. Der Isoleirte Staat in Beziehung auf Landwirthschaft und Nationalökonomie, oder Untersuchungen über den Einfluss, den die Getreidepreise, der Reichtum des Bodens und die Abgaben auf den Ackerbau ausüben, Vol. 1,.Der Isolierte Staat..., Vol II: Der Naturgeässe Arbeitslohn und dessen Verhältnis zum Zinsfuss und zur Landrente, Part 1(1966年由Carla M. Wartenberg以Isolated State.为题将其中的一部分翻译成英语。)参见Scott Crosier's Johann-Heinrich von Thünen: Balancing Land-Use Allocation with Transport Cost页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).
  2. ^ Dempsey, Bernard W. 1960. The Frontier Wage Chicago: Loyola University Press. In pages 187-367 Dempsey has translated von Thünen 1863 piece Der Isolierte Staat, Vol II, Part 2 as The Isolated State in Relation to Agriculture and Political Economy, Vol. II: The Natural Wage and Its Relation to the Rate of Interest and to Economic Rent.
  3. ^ Isard (1956, p. 27).
  4. ^ Weber, Alfred. 1929. (由Carl J. Friedrich翻译自韦伯1909年的著作). Theory of the Location of Industries. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 参见 David Fearon's Alfred Weber: Theory of the Location of Industries, 1909页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆).


  • 杜能; 吴衡康译. 孤立国同农业和国民经济的关系. 汉译世界学术名著丛书. 北京: 商务印书馆. 1986 [1826] (中文). 
  • 韦伯·A; 李刚剑 陈志人 张英保 译. 工业区位论. 北京: 商务印书馆. 1997 [1905]. ISBN 7-100-01738-6 (中文). 
  • 克里斯塔勒; 常正文等译. 德国南部中心地原理. 北京: 商务印书馆. 1998 [1968]. ISBN 7-100-01888-9 (中文). 
  • 廖什; 王守礼译. 经济空间秩序:经济财货与地理间的关系. 北京: 商务印书馆. 1995 [1954]. ISBN 7-100-01443-3 (中文). 
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