半开后不圆唇元音 - Wikiwand
For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for 半开后不圆唇元音.

半开后不圆唇元音

维基百科,自由的百科全书

半开后不圆唇元音
ʌ
IPA编号 314
编码
HTML码(十进制) ʌ
Unicode码(十六进制) U+028C
X-SAMPA音标 V
ASCII音标英语Kirshenbaum V
IPA盲文英语IPA Braille
音频范例

半开后不圆唇元音(open-mid back unrounded vowel、low-mid back unrounded vowel、[1])是母音的一种,用于部分口说语言中。代表此音的国际音标符号为ʌ;而其X-SAMPA音标则写作V

国际音标中的此音的符号为倒转的v,且符号本身和此音很多时候被讲成是一个楔形、脱字符或帽子。

在表示部分语言(包括部分英语方言)的发音时,这符号亦用作次开央元音之符号。

在普通话中,拼音e有时会通过辅音化的[ɯ]后加上/ʌ/实现,如he=/xɰʌ/

朝鲜语有此音,是标准语中谚文的发音,也用于表示中古朝鲜语中谚文的发音。另外在朝鲜文化语则读作/ɔ/

特征

国际音标元音
次闭
半闭
半开
次开

表内成对的元音分别为不圆唇/圆唇

  • 元音舌位,表示舌头的位置会尽可能地朝向口腔后部,但不至于阻碍气流而被归类为子音。
  • 圆唇度不圆唇元音,嘴唇自然放松,不特别向前突起。

注释

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".

参考文献

  • Altendorf, Ulrike; Watt, Dominic, The dialects in the South of England: phonology, (编) Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter: 181–196, 2004, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Bishop, Nancy, A preliminary description of Kensiu (Maniq) phonology (PDF), Mon–Khmer Studies Journal, 1996, 25 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M., The Phonetics of Cardiff English, (编) Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd.: 87–103, 1990, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles, Cruttenden, Alan, 编, Gimson's Pronunciation of English 8th, Routledge, 2014, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Gordon, Matthew, New York, Philadelphia and other Northern Cities, (编) Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter: 294–296, 2004a, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Gordon, Matthew, The West and Midwest: phonology, (编) Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter: 340, 2004b, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery, Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble, Anais do SETA (Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP), 2009, 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel, An outline of English phonetics 9th, Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons Ltd., 1972 
  • Keane, Elinor, Tamil, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2004, 34 (1): 111–116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla; Weise, Constanze, Upper Saxon (Chemnitz dialect) (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2013, 43 (2): 231–241, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000145 
  • Kruspe, Nicole; Hajek, John, Mah Meri, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2009, 39 (2): 241–248, doi:10.1017/S0025100309003946 
  • Lass, Roger, South African English, (编) Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lawrence, Erma, Haida dictionary, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, 1977 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok, Korean, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press: 120–122, 1999, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe. Irish. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. 1999: 111–116. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn, Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing, 1999 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin, Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers, 2006 
  • Thomas, Erik R., An acoustic analysis of vowel variation in New World English, Publication of the American Dialect Society (Duke University Press for the American Dialect Society), 2001, 85, ISSN 0002-8207 
  • Tillery, Jan; Bailey, Guy, The urban South: phonology, (编) Kortmann, Bernd; Schneider, Edgar W., A Handbook of Varieties of English: Volume 1: Phonology, Walter de Gruyter: 333, 2004, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Wells, J.C. Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1982. ISBN 0-521-28541-0. 
  • Yanushevskaya, Irena; Bunčić, Daniel, Russian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2015, 45 (2): 221–228, doi:10.1017/S0025100314000395 
{{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}}
半开后不圆唇元音
Listen to this article