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古生物学

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古生物学是研究古地质时代中的生物及其发展的科学。它是生物学和地质学的交叉科学[1][2]。既是生命科学中唯一具有历史科学性质的时间尺度的一个独特分支,研究生命起源、发展历史、生物宏观进化模型、节奏与作用机制等历史生物学的重要基础和组成部分;又是地球科学的一个分支,研究保存在地层中的生物遗体、遗迹、化石,用以确定地层的顺序、时代,了解地壳发展的历史,推断地质史上水陆分布、气候变迁和沉积矿产形成与分布的规律。

研究对象

化石:通过对化石的考察,配合对含化石岩层的了解以及其他一些有关地质问题的研究,以解释古代生物中的各类问题。著名的有验证大陆漂移学说

主要分支

根据研究的不同对象,古生物学分为古植物学和古动物学两大分支。随着近代生产发展的需要和科学研究的深化,古植物学分出了古粉学和古藻类学;古动物学分出了古无脊椎动物学和古脊椎动物学;古人类学既是人类学的分支学科,又是古脊椎动物学的分支学科;根据个体微小的动植物化石或大生物体微小部分的研究,又形成了微体古生物的分支学科,在理论和实践上显示出重要的意义。

学说

虽然古生物学说基本上都属于假设,但这些假设背后是有不少的科学证据支持作为佐证。这些证据包括有动物遗体的化石证据、痕迹化石证据、以及科学家地质化学的观察等[3][4][5][6][7]

方法

实地考察是一种重要的研究方法,从古代生物(包括动植物)的化石等方面了解当时的地球情况。

参考文献

  1. ^ paleontology | science. Encyclopædia Britannica. [2017-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2017-08-24) (英语). 
  2. ^ McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology. McGraw-Hill. 2002: 58. ISBN 0-07-913665-6. 
  3. ^ Signor, P.W. Sampling bias, gradual extinction patterns and catastrophes in the fossil record. Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the Earth. Geological Society of America Special Papers (Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America). 1982, 190: 291–96 [January 1, 2008]. ISBN 0-8137-2190-3. doi:10.1130/SPE190-p291. A 84–25651 10–42. (原始内容存档于July 28, 2020). 
  4. ^ Butterfield, N.J. Ecology and evolution of Cambrian plankton (PDF). The Ecology of the Cambrian Radiation (New York: Columbia University Press). 2001: 200–16 [September 27, 2007]. [永久失效链接]
  5. ^ Benton M.J.; Wills M.A.; Hitchin R. Quality of the fossil record through time. Nature. 2000, 403 (6769): 534–37. Bibcode:2000Natur.403..534B. PMID 10676959. S2CID 4407172. doi:10.1038/35000558. 
    Non-technical summary 互联网档案馆存档,存档日期August 9, 2007,.
  6. ^ e.g. Seilacher, A. How valid is Cruziana Stratigraphy?. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 1994, 83 (4): 752–58. Bibcode:1994GeoRu..83..752S. S2CID 129504434. doi:10.1007/BF00251073. 
  7. ^ Brocks, J.J.; Logan, G.A.; Buick, R.; Summons, R.E. Archaean molecular fossils and the rise of eukaryotes. Science. 1999, 285 (5430): 1033–36 [2022-03-29]. PMID 10446042. S2CID 11028394. doi:10.1126/science.285.5430.1033. (原始内容存档于2020-07-28). 

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古生物学
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